The Goss texture is a characteristic feature of grain-oriented transformer steel sheets. Generator sheets, which are produced as non-oriented steel sheets, should have isotropic features. However, measurement results of generator sheets, confirmed by crystallographic studies, indicate that these sheets are characterized by certain, quite significant anisotropy. The first purpose of this paper is to present the influence of textures of generator and transformer steel sheets on their magnetization characteristics. The second aim is to propose a method which takes into account the sheet textures in the calculations of magnetization curves. In calculations of magnetization processes in electrical steel sheets, models in which the plane of a sheet sample is divided into an assumed number of specified directions are used. To each direction a certain hysteresis loop, the so-called direction hysteresis, is assigned. The parameters of these direction hystereses depend, among other things, on the texture type in these steel sheets. This paper discusses the method which calculates the parameters of these direction hystereses taking into account the given sheet texture. The proposed method gives a possibility of determining the magnetization characteristics for any direction of the field intensity changes.
Magnetic measurements, carried out by means of the Epstein frame, have shown that most typical dynamo steel sheets have certain anisotropic properties. In numerical analysis, anisotropic properties are taken into account with the use of the special function of the grain distribution in the given dynamo sheet. For engineering purposes, it is desirable to assess the influence of these properties on the changes of the magnetic flux density in typical dynamo steel sheets, especially during the rotational magnetization. For this purpose, measurements of the flux density changes and field strength changes in the circular-shaped samples of two selected typical dynamo sheets were performed. These measurements were carried out for several values of the current flowing in windings which generated the axial or rotational magnetic field in the test dynamo sheet. The influence of the magnetic anisotropy on the magnetization process was briefly discussed for both types of the magnetization processes.
The Small Hydro Power Plants allow to increase the energy amount from renewable sources, especially from small rivers in mountainous areas. This paper presents a new concept of a energy conversion system for application in a Small Hydropower Plant (SHP) which is based on a permanent magnet generator (PM generator) with a propeller turbine integrated with the generator rotor. The PM generator can work at a variable speed and therefore energy produced by the PM generator has to be converted by means of a power electronic unit to fit to the three-phase power grid parameters. For this concept, dimensions and parameters of the PM generator were specially designed on account of integration with water turbine. The paper precisely describes elements of energy conversion system and also presents the results of numerical tests for chosen working conditions. An original algorithm of control strategy for power electronic unit was used to adjust generated energy to the required parameters of the three-phase grid.
The main purpose of the paper is to present a method which allows taking into account the anisotropic properties of dynamo steel sheets. An additional aim is to briefly present anisotropic properties of these sheets which are caused by occurrences of some textures. In order to take into account textures occurring in dynamo sheets, a certain sheet sample is divided into elementary segments. Two matrix equations, describing changes of the magnetic field, are transformed to one non-linear algebraic equation in which the field strength components are unknown. In this transformation the flux densities assigned to individual elementary segments are replaced by functions of flux densities of easy magnetization axes of all textures occurring in the given dynamo sheet. The procedure presented in the paper allows determining one non-linear matrix equation of the magnetic field distribution; in this equation all textures occurring in a dynamo sheet are included. Information about textures occurring in typical dynamo sheets may be used in various approaches regarding the inclusion of anisotropic properties of these sheets, but above all, the presented method can be helpful in calculations of the magnetic field distribution in anisotropic dynamo sheets.