This paper presents a complex study on ciliates from the different species of mosses of King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic. Samples of ciliates were collected from Polytrichastrum alpinum , Sanionia georgico−uncinata , Sanionia uncinata and Brachythecium austrosalebrosum . The highest species richness (19 taxa) occurred in habitats from Brachythecium austrosalebrosum . The lowest number of taxa (5) was observed in Polytrichastrum alpinum . The greatest abundance of ciliates was found in samples from Brachythecium austrosalebrosum (25–30 ind. g −1 ), while the lowest was found in samples from Polytrichastrum (4–6 ind. g −1 ). In each species of mosses, vertical differentiation of these protozoa assemblages was found. The number of species and abundance significantly increased in the lower samples. The upper samples of mosses were dominated by mixotrophic taxa, whereas samples from the lower part the proportions of bacterivore species increases. The RDA performed to specify the direct relationships between the abundance of ciliate taxa and environmental variables showed obvious differences between habitats studied. However, variables that significantly explained the variance in ciliate communities were: dissolved oxygen, pH, and nutrients.
The primary objective of the present study was to determine the seasonal dynamics of ciliates in activated sludge. Studies were carried out in order to verify the hypothesis that fertility of a habitat may significantly influence the seasonal dynamics of the abundance of ciliates, as well as the number and intensity of correlations between physic-chemical parameters and ciliates. It seems that the values of numbers of ciliates were seasonally changeable. The highest numbers of ciliates were found in spring and summer, however the lowest numbers of ciliate communities were noted in winter. The studies showed that protozoa community is determined by ammonia mainly in summer. In spring and winter additional factors may be important. Probably suspended solid, total organic carbon and concentration of appropriate food (bacteria and flagellates) are the major regulator of abundance of ciliates.
The paper aimed to get the analysis of spatial horizontal distribution of summer phyto-plankton in a small and shallow lake (Głębokie, Western Polesie, CE Poland) in relation to wind conditions occurring during the research period. The study was conducted in 2011 from 5th of July to 5th of September with eight sampling dates between. Water was sampled in the littoral zone from the depth of 0.5 m in four sites situated in different and opposite to one another lake shores. We analyzed the phytoplankton abundance by the way of chlorophyll a determination as well as the community taxonomic structure. Our research revealed that: a) the direction of the wind, which occurred during sampling might have an important role in the horizontal distribution of planktonic algal biomass within the lake; b) the geomorphology of lake surroundings probably mitigated the influence of wind on phytoplankton distribution; c) even weak or mild wind may influence phytoplankton horizontal differentiation.
The upper section of the Bystrzyca River has a character of trout and grayling zone of river. The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fish in the upper section of the Bystrzyca River and attempt to evaluate angling pressure on fish in this section of river based on analysis of records of amateur fishing. To determine the fish composition the control fishing was conducted using electric fishing gear. The assessment of angling pressure was based on the analysis of 2135 records of fishing in the mountain type rivers in 2012 year, obtained from PAA Lublin. The brown trout and grayling were a dominant fish species in the upper section of the Bystrzyca River, and the first of them was present on the whole length of the river and had the highest average density. The changes of fish community along the river course from Salmonids lead to an increase of the share of Cyprinids fish has been observed. Analysis of records of ama-teur fish catch revealed that the upper section of the Bystrzyca River is under considerable of angling pressure and the most commonly fished species was brown trout. However, the properly carried fishery management on this section of river and the establishment of „no kill” zone allows for proper maintenance of the populations of fish species valuable for anglers.
The aim of the study was to determine species structure of aquatic bugs in four anthro-pogenic water reservoirs. Heteroptera structure observed in studied reservoirs was clearly differen-tiated, which refers to age of the ponds. Newly created water reservoirs become quickly colonized mainly by pioneering species Corixinae, which led to formation of taxonomic group population of density exceeding 2700 indiv. m-2. In older reservoirs there were fish, which potential predation pressure led to almost a complete decline of bugs. The reason of bugs poverty in water reservoirs colonized by fish was also probably a small habitat diversity, leading to lack of refuges from predators.
The role of two submerged macrophyte species (Ceratophyllum demersum and Potamogeton pectinatus) as biological factor affecting concentrations of P and chlorophyll a concentrations was tested under laboratory conditions. In general, after four weeks exposition, the significant reduction of TP, P-PO4 and chlorophyll a was observed in all experimental variants (aquaria with P. pectinatus, C. demersum and P. pecinatus + C. demersum), but the highest decrease of phosphorous compounds (TP, P-PO4) was noted in aquarium with C. demersum, whereas the highest decline of chlorophyll a concentration (biomass of phytoplankton) was observed in aquarium with C. demersum + P. pectinatus. Together with the reduction of chemical parameters the biomass of macrophytes as well mean length of plant shoots significantly increases. The highest growth of shoots and biomass showed C. demersum.
Cyanobacterial and algal blooms lead to the deterioration of freshwater ecosystems but also generate technical problems in water management in the industry. Power plants often use freshwater lakes and reservoirs as a source of cooling water and in the case of cogeneration stations (combined heat and power) also as a source of agents for heating energy distribution. A preliminary research in one of the heat and power stations in eastern Poland which uses water from suffering with algal blooms reservoir was carried out in April 2011. The study was focused on the changes in the phytoplankton quantitative and qualitative structure as well as in basic physico- -chemical parameters along the water treatment line, which consists of several stages serving as sampling points (from the pump station to the purified water tank). The initial phytoplankton biomass in the reservoir was high (fresh biomass: 65.8 mg dm-3, chlorophyll a: 146.7 μg dm-3) with diatoms prevailing (98% of the total biomass) from which the most numerous were: Cyclotella comta and Aulacoseira granulata. After several stages of the purification process (sedimentation, biocide addition, flocculation, gravel filtering, ion exchange) the water still consisted a considerable amount of algae (fresh biomass: 2.48 mg dm-3, chlorophyll a: 6.0 μg dm-3). However, the final biomass in purified water tank (after reversed osmosis process) was very low (fresh biomass: 0.03 mg dm-3, chlorophyll a: 0.1 μg dm-3). Results had shown that high algal biomass in the water used in power generation plant is difficult to remove and consequently requires considerable technical (thus also economical) efforts to adjust the water for the industrial use.
The relationships between epiphytic fauna and habitat conditions were studied in three oxbow lakes of Wieprz River (eastern Poland). Fauna associated with macrophytes showed low species richness (range 8–11 taxa dependently on site and season) usually observed in lakes of high water trophy. Densities of fauna were high (mean 71–5250 ind. 100 g DW-1), typical for shallow lakes with well developed submerged vegetation. In the domination structure prevailed Gastropoda (relative abundance 23–100%) and Chironomidae (relative abundance 8–87%). Re-dundancy analysis showed the significance of four environmental variables – temperature, dis-solved oxygen, Ptot and P-PO4 as determinants of abundance of epiphytic fauna.
The brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) is an invasive species of fish fauna in Poland. This species is widespread throughout the country but its abundance and characteristics of populations present in water reservoirs are relatively little known. Aim of this study was to determine the abundance and characteristic of the population of brown bullhead in the Domaszne Lake. The control fish catches were carried out three times in 2012 and 2013 years (spring, summer, autumn). Brown bullhead had a small share in the structure of fish abundance (2.7%) and biomass (7.5%), but his presence was reported in results of all control fishing. Relative abundance of brown bullhead averaged about 7.8 CPUE and biomass about 505.5 WPUE. The fishes the greatest total length and weight had in the spring (Tl = 18.5 cm, W = 77.7 g) but the highest value of the coefficient of condition (K = 2.08) in summer were noted. Brown bullhead with a total length from 16 to 18 cm accounted for as much as 59% of the population and distribution of size structure confirm a fact that has a stable population.
The seasonal development of testate amoebae and ciliates was studied in two peatbogs with different pH values. The values of numbers of testate amoebae were seasonally changeable. The highest numbers of testate amoebae were found in spring and summer with the dominance of Areclla vulgaris, Nebela barbata and Cucurbitella sp. The density during the autumn was the lowest. The highest numbers of ciliate communities were noted in spring and autumn during the mass development of small Scuticociliatida and Colpodea. The density throughout the summer was the lowest. Generally, in the present studies the abundance of testate amoebae was correlated with the abundance of bacteria and heterotrophic flagellates. The density of bacterivorous Colpodea, Scuticociliatida and Cyrtophorida correlated positively with the density and biomass of bacteria. In low pH peatbog relations between microbial loop components were stronger.
The aim of research carried out was to describe the zonality and structure of zoopleuston in shallow eutrophic reservoirs. Zoopleuston structure discovered in examined reservoirs was quite different than in depression reservoirs and lakes on Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland. It was related to morphometry of reservoirs and plant richness of shallow litoral zone. Higher species richness in the water/land contact zone was found which confirms previous studies, however, sometimes zoopleuston abundance showed the opposite pattern. Most differences occurred in dominants composition as in water/land contact zone and on the depth of 0.5 m dominated mainly by small species of Heteroptera: Micronecta minutissima and Cymatia coleoptrata.
There are hardly any data concerning the vertical micro−distribution of protozoa in water column in cryoconite holes on the glacier surface. Such comparisons can provide insights into the ecology of protozoa. The present research was made on Ecology Glacier (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic); vertical microzonation of c iliates in relation to physical and chemical parameters in cryoconite holes was studied. The density and biomass of protozoans significantly differed between the studied stations (cryoconite holes), with the lowest numbers in the surface water and the highest in the bottom water. The surface waters were dominated by mixotrophic and omnivorous taxa, whe reas the deepest sampling level has shown the increase of the proportion of bacterivore species . Ordination analysis indicated that TN and P−PO 4 can strongly regulate the abundance and species composition of protozoa. The redundancy analyses (RDA) showed that the ciliate communities can be separated into two groups. The first group included species associated with surface water: Halteria grandinella and Codonella sp. The second group included species that are associated with bottom water: Prorodon sp. , Holosticha pullaster , Stylonychia mytilus −complex and small scuticociliates.