In order to enhance the acoustical performance of a traditional straight-path automobile muffler, a multi-chamber muffler having reverse paths is presented. Here, the muffler is composed of two internally parallel/extended tubes and one internally extended outlet. In addition, to prevent noise transmission from the muffler’s casing, the muffler’s shell is also lined with sound absorbing material. Because the geometry of an automotive muffler is complicated, using an analytic method to predict a muffler’s acoustical performance is difficult; therefore, COMSOL, a finite element analysis software, is adopted to estimate the automotive muffler’s sound transmission loss. However, optimizing the shape of a complicated muffler using an optimizer linked to the Finite Element Method (FEM) is time-consuming. Therefore, in order to facilitate the muffler’s optimization, a simplified mathematical model used as an objective function (or fitness function) during the optimization process is presented. Here, the objective function can be established by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in conjunction with the muffler’s design parameters and related TLs (simulated by FEM). With this, the muffler’s optimization can proceed by linking the objective function to an optimizer, a Genetic Algorithm (GA). Consequently, the discharged muffler which is optimally shaped will improve the automotive exhaust noise.
As the most recent video coding standard, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) adopts various novel techniques, including a quad-tree based coding unit (CU) structure and additional angular modes used for intra encoding. These new techniques achieve a notable improvement in coding efficiency at the penalty of significant computational complexity increase. Thus, a fast HEVC coding algorithm is highly desirable. In this paper, we propose a fast intra CU decision algorithm for HEVC to reduce the coding complexity, mainly based on a key-point detection. A CU block is considered to have multiple gradients and is early split if corner points are detected inside the block. On the other hand, a CU block without corner points is treated to be terminated when its RD cost is also small according to statistics of the previous frames. The proposed fast algorithm achieves over 62% encoding time reduction with 3.66%, 2.82%, and 2.53% BD-Rate loss for Y, U, and V components, averagely. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient to fast decide CU size in HEVC intra coding, even though only static parameters are applied to all test sequences.
Abstract Magnetic-geared permanent magnet (MGPM) electrical machine is a new type of machine by incorporating magnetic gear into PM electrical machine, and it may be in operation with low-speed, high-torque and direct-driven. In this paper, three types of MGPM machines are present, and a quantitative comparison among them is performed by finite element analysis (FEA). The magnetic field distribution, stable torque and back EMF are obtained at no-load. The results show that three types of MGPM machine are suitable for different application fields respectively according to their own advantages, such as high torque and back EMF, which form an important foundation for MGPM electrical machine research.
To reduce the influence of the static unbalance on an infrared missile guidance system, a new static unbalance measure system for the gimbals axes has been developed. Considering the coupling effects caused by a mass eccentricity, the static balance condition and measure sequence for each gimbal axis are obtained. A novel static unbalance test approach is proposed after analyzing the dynamic model of the measured gimbal axis. This approach is to drive the measured gimbal axis to do sinusoidal reciprocating motion in a small angle and collect its drive currents in real time. Then the static unbalance of the measured gimbal axis can be obtained by the current multi-cycle integration. Also a measuring system using the proposed approach has been developed. A balanced simulator is used to verify the proposed approach by the load and repeatability tests. The results show the proposed approach enhances the efficiency of the static unbalance measurement, and the developed measuring system is able to achieve a high precision with a greater stability.
Most researchers have explored noise reduction effects based on the transfer matrix method and the boundary element method. However, maximum noise reduction of a plenum within a constrained space, which frequently occurs in engineering problems, has been neglected. Therefore, the optimum design of multi-chamber plenums becomes essential. In this paper, two kinds of multi-chamber plenums (Case I: a two-chamber plenum that is partitioned with a centre-opening baffle; Case II: a three-chamber plenum that is partitioned with two centre-opening baffles) within a fixed space are assessed. In order to speed up the assessment of optimal plenums hybridized with multiple partitioned baffles, a simplified objective function (OBJ) is established by linking the boundary element model (BEM, developed using SYSNOISE) with a polynomial neural network fit with a series of real data – input design data (baffle dimensions) and output data approximated by BEM data in advance. To assess optimal plenums, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied. The results reveal that the maximum value of the transmission loss (TL) can be improved at the desired frequencies. Consequently, the algorithm proposed in this study can provide an efficient way to develop optimal multi-chamber plenums for industry.