Experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in heated vertical tubes dissipating heat from the internal surface is presented. The test section is electrically heated and constant wall heat flux is maintained both circumferentially and axially. Four different test sections are taken having 45 mm internal diameter and 3.8 mm thickness. The length of the test sections are 450 mm, 550 mm, 700 mm and 850 mm. Ratios of length to diameter of the test sections are taken as 10, 12.22, 15.56, and 18.89. Wall heat fluxes are maintained at 250–3341 W/m2. Experiments are also conducted on channels with internal rings of rectangular section placed at various distances. Thickness of the rings are taken as 4 mm, 6 mm, and 8 mm. The step size of the rings varies from 75 mm to 283.3 mm. The nondimensional ring spacing, expressed as the ratios of step size to diameter, are taken from 1.67 to 6.29 and the non-dimensional ring thickness, expressed as the ratios of ring thickness to diameter are taken from 0.089 to 0.178. The ratios of ring spacing to its thickness are taken as 9.375 to 70.82. The effects of various parameters such as length to diameter ratio, wall heat flux, ring thickness and ring spacing on local steady-state heat transfer behavior are observed. From the experimental data a correlation is developed for average Nusselt number and modified Rayleigh number. Another correlation is also developed for modified Rayleigh number and modified Reynolds number. These correlations can predict the data accurately within ±10% error.
Computer-aided tools help in shortening and eradicating numerous repetitive tasks that reduces the gap between digital model and actual product. Use of these tools assists in realizing free-form objects such as custom fit products as described by a stringent interaction with the human body. Development of such a model presents a challenging situation for reverse engineering (RE) which is not analogous with the requirement for generating simple geometric models. Hence, an alternating way of producing more accurate three-dimensional models is proposed. For creating accurate 3D models, point clouds are processed through filtering, segmentation, mesh smoothing and surface generation. These processes help in converting the initial unorganized point data into a 3D digital model and simultaneously influence the quality of model. This study provides an optimum balance for the best accuracy obtainable with maximum allowable deviation to lessen computer handling and processing time. A realistic non trivial case study of free-form prosthetic socket is considered. The accuracy obtained for the developed model is acceptable for the use in medical applications and FEM analysis.