Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important foliar diseases of cereals. Infection by this pathogen on triticale has intensified in Poland in the last few years. In this study we examined resistance to powdery mildew in triticale hybrids possessing resistance genes Pm4b and Pm6 introduced from common wheat. The materials tested were hybrids derived from triticale crosses with common wheat cultivars carrying the desired resistance genes. The presence of the transferred genes was reflected in increased field resistance and shown by the use of molecular markers. The paper discusses the potential introduction of the genes to improve powdery mildew resistance.
In this paper, the PLC-based (Programmable Logic Controller) industrial implementation in the form of the general-purpose function block for ADRC (Active Disturbance Rejection Controller) is presented. The details of practical aspects are discussed because their reliable implementation is not trivial for higher order ADRC. Additional important novelties discussed in the paper are the impact of the derivative backoff and the method that significantly simplifies tuning of higher order ADRC by avoiding the usual trial and error procedure. The results of the practical validation of the suggested concepts complete the paper and show the potential industrial applicability of ADRC.
Studies of noise properties of thick-film conducting lines from Au or PdAg conductive pastes on LTCC or alumina substrates are reported. Experiments have been carried out at the room temperature on samples prepared in the form of meanders by traditional screen-printing or laser-shaping technique. Due to a low resistance of the devices under test (DUTs), low-frequency noise spectra have been measured for the dc-biased samples arranged in a bridge configuration, transformer-coupled to a low-noise amplifier. The detailed analysis of noise sources in the signal path and its transfer function, including the transformer, has been carried out, and a procedure for measurement setup self-calibration has been described. The 1/f noise component originating from resistance fluctuations has been found to be dominant in all DUTs. The analysis of experimental data leads to the conclusion that noise is produced in the bends of meanders rather than in their straight segments. It occurs that noise of Au-based laser-shaped lines is significantly smaller than screen-printed ones. PdAg lines have been found more resistive but simultaneously less noisy than Au-based lines.
The main subject of research in this paper is glauconite with its useful parameters, which is the object of exploitation in the “Górka Lubartowska-Niedźwiada” deposit. The main glauconitic horizon (lower Eocene) is built by loamy fine-grained and medium greenish sands with marine fauna and fragments of amber (ca. 7 m thick). Thin lamins and pockets of silts containing phosphorites and also glauconitic sands with underlaying very thin quartz-glauconitic sands are found at the bottom of this layer. The glauconite deposit in “Górka Lubartowska-Niedźwiada” is an amount of ca. 30% by volume of the main glauconitic horizon. Glauconite of the 1M polytype (XRD) shows large granulometric and morphological differentiation (SEM-EDS). It frequently contains aggregations of euhedral or framboidal pyrite grains (RS), which is indicative of the euxinic nature of the formation environment of the rocks under study. The individual glauconite grains show distinct chemical variability, manifested in a lower share of Al2O3 and an increased content of MgO and CaO (EPMA, XRF). At the same time, a large share of K2O (above 8% by weight) allows it to be included in highly matured glauconite, thus it can be considered as a potential raw material for the production of mineral fertilizers. The association of glauconite with phosphates (SEM-EDS) and anatase inclusions in the grains of glauconite (RS) indirectly point to the contribution of the decomposing organic matter to the formation of grains of this mineral. The xylite fragments preserved in the sediment show a low degree of coalification, which is typical of soft lignite. This also shows that the transformation process was taking place under a relatively small overburden.