The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a second prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) treatment during Ovsynch on luteal regression and fertility in dairy cows, compared with standard Ovsynch. The study was conducted on 111 Holstein Friesian multiparous cows on commercial dairy farm. The cows in the experimental group (n=48) received two treatments of PGF2α 24 hours apart during Ovsynch. The cows in the control group (n=63) were synchronized with standard Ovsynch. To assess the progesterone (P4) concentration blood samples were collected at the day of PGF2α treatment and at the 2nd GnRH treatment. Pregnancy was evaluated by ultrasound examination 37-40 days after timed artificial insemination (TAI) by ultrasound. Cows diagnosed pregnant were re-examined between days 70-80 after TAI. The percentage of cows with complete corpus luteum (CL) regression (P4<0.5 ng/ml at the time of the 2nd GnRH treatment) was 89.6 % after two PGF2α treatments and 88.9 % after one PGF2α treatment. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in the pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) between the experimental and control group (P/AI). However, the pregnancy loss rate was lower in cows receiving two PGF2α treatments than in the control animals (0.0 % vs. 6.4 %; p<0.05). In conclusion, the second PGF2α treatment during Ovsynch protocol had no significant effect on CL regression and P/AI in dairy cows. The pregnancy losses until days 75-80 after TAI were significantly lower after two PGF2α treatments than after one PGF2α treatment.
There is no information available about the incidence of anestrus and its clinical forms after service in dairy cows in Poland. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of clinical forms of anoestrus after unsuccessful artificial insemination in dairy cows based on ultrasound examination. The study was carried out on 1543 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows in 8 dairy herds in north-east Poland over a three-year period. Cows were examined for pregnancy on day 35 after AI using a Honda 1500 portable ultrasound scanner equipped with a 5 MHz linear-array transducer. Cows diagnosed as pregnant were re-examined on day 45. Of the 1543 inseminated cows, 408 (26.4%) showed no estrus signs and were diagnosed not-pregnant by ultrasonography, 328 (21.3%) returned to estrus within 35 days, and 807 (52.3%) were pregnant via artificial insemination. The incidence of anestrus after service in non-pregnant cows varied among herds from 10.3% to 32.9% of cows (p<0.05). Based on ultrasound examination silent heat was diagnosed in 324 (79.4%), corpus luteum pseudograviditatis in 36 (8.8%), ovarian cysts in 26 (6.4%), and ovarian afunction in 22 (5.4%) of 408 anestrous, non-pregnant cows. The results of this study showed that the incidence of anestrus after service in dairy herds in North-East Poland was high. The most prevalent clinical form of post-service anestrus was silent heat.
Previous studies have compared the effectiveness of dinoprost and cloprostenol in cows yielding conflicting results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of single treatment with cloprostenol or dinoprost on estrus and reproductive performance in cows with unobserved estrus after service. The study was conducted over four years in two dairy herds of Polish Holstein Frisian cows under a herd health program with an average milk yield per cow over 9000 L. Cows (n=523) diagnosed ultrasonographically as non-pregnant and with a corpus luteum were randomly assigned to be treated with either cloprostenol (n=261) or dinoprost (n=262). The estrus detection rates after administration of cloprostenol or dinoprost were 59.4%, and 57.6%, respectively. The difference between both groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Distribution of observed estrus did not differ between cloprostenol and dinoprost. There were no differences (p>0.05) between cloprostenol and dinoprost in conception rate (65.2% vs. 66.2%, respectively) and pregnancy rate (57.5% vs. 54.9%, respectively). Mean days open were similar in cows of both treatments (177.5 ± 74.6 days vs. 175.8 ± 62.6 days, respectively; p>0.05). In conclusion, data from this study showed no significant differences in estrus detection rates and fertility between cows with unobserved estrus after service treated with cloprostenol or dinoprost. Both products are equally useful for the treatment of non-pregnant dairy cows with anestrus after service within a reproductive herd health program.
The growing number of mobile devices and the increasing popularity of multimedia services result in a new challenge of providing mobility in access networks. The paper describes experimental research on media (audio and video) streaming in a mobile IEEE 802.11 b/g/n environment realizing network-based mobility. It is an approach to mobility that requires little or no modification of the mobile terminal. Assessment of relevant parameters has been conducted in an IPv6 testbed. During the tests, both Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) parameters have been considered. Against the background of standard L3 and L2 handovers, an emerging mobility solution named Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) has been examined. Its advantages (L3 connectivity maintenance) and disadvantages (packet loss during handover) are emphasized based on the obtained results. Moreover, a new solution for handover optimization has been proposed. A handoff influence upon audio/video generation and transfer imperfections has been studied and found to be an interesting direction of future work.