Knowledge of uterine fibroids has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, there are still wide gaps in the understanding of its pathogenesis. No single theory explains the background of uterine fibroid pathology, which affects more than 50% of women worldwide. By contrast, a newly depicted cell type called telocytes was only recently identified in the past twenty years. Th ese cells have evoked ambivalent opinions in the scientific community. The unique features of telocytes coupled with experimental evidence by numerous researchers and our hypotheses and conceptions are discussed in this review. We emphasize the main telocyte interactions in the context of the uterine fibroid architecture. This review reveals the pivotal role of telocytes, describing their contacts with smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, vessels and nerves, inflammatory cells and stem cells. Our data are based on the latest publications and our own results.
I n t r o d u c t i o n: Hydronephrosis is an actual pediatric problem, affecting children in the anteand neonatal periods. Intrinsic stenosis is due to external obstruction and creates a pathophysiological basis of this urological pathology. Co-localization of ureter with a renal vasculature also could not be omitted from this point of view. Mesenchymal cells, partially telocytes, are important for local fibrosis development and hydronephrosis formation as well. In the current study, we focused on identification of telocytes in the human ureters to hypothesize their role in hydronephrosis pathophysiology. M a t e r i a l a n d Me t h o d s: The samples were taken from 18 surgically treated patients with hydronephrosis (due to ureteral obstruction and crossing renal vessel). The control group consisted of 10 patients suffered from a non-obstructive disease of the urinary tract — predominantly renal tumors. Tissue samples from a ureter were stained for c-kit, tryptase, CD34 and PDGFRα to identify telocytes. Routine histology was performed to analyze tissue morphology, collagen deposits and mast cell’s profile. R e s u l t s: Telocytes were detected in the ureteral wall. In patients with hydronephrosis we revealed decreasing density of telocytes, the prevalence of collagen, rise in mast cells amount and the ureteral wall thickening. In ureters with crossing renal vessels as a primary etiologic factor more telocytes have been observed in comparison with the obstructive hydronephrosis. C o n c l u s i o n s: A declined density of telocytes accompanied hydronephrosis development. Increased number of mast cells in the ureteral wall reflects a local inflammation, while detailed observation of collagen/muscle deposits and density of telocytes reveal a difference depended on etiologic factor (obstruction or crossing vessel) in patients with hydronephrosis.
B a c k g r o u n d: Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is considered a reliable assessment method of a balance between cerebral oxygen demand and supply. One of forms of anaesthesia applied during extensive abdominal surgical procedures is the epidural anaesthesia. Its application in addition to the general anaesthesia is a commonly accepted form of anaesthesia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that epidural blocks may have eff ects on cerebral saturation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia. M e t h o d s: Cerebral saturation was monitored intrasurgically. Reduction of cerebral oxymetry by over 25% in relation to the baseline, or cerebral oxymetry value below 50% was considered clinically significant. R e s u l t s: One hundred and one (101) subsequent and non-randomised patients, age between 35 and 84 years (mean 64 ± 10) qualifi ed for major abdominal surgeries were enrolled. In 14 (13.9%) patients of 101 enrolled a clinically signifi cant reduction of cerebral saturation was observed. In 50 (49.5%) of the enrolled patients, the epidural anaesthesia was applied along the general anaesthesia. A clinically signifi cant reduction of cerebral saturation was observed in 9 of them. No statistically significant association was found between the application of epidural anaesthesia and development of cerebral desaturation. C o n c l u s i o n: The application of epidural anaesthesia caused no clinically significant reduction of cerebral saturation during the general anaesthesia in course of major abdominal surgical procedures.
“Wartowice” tailings pond was closed in 1989, resulting in 232,4 ha tailings pile requiring reclamation. The major problem is heavy metals presence and poor nutrient conditions and physicochemical structure of soil which disturbs the plants development. In order to assess the real condition of studied area the complete biological characteristic has been done. The physicochemical conditions were assessed altogether with phytosociological, microbiological and toxicological studies of deposits. We recorded only 27 species of vascular plants belonging to 15 families on the tailings pond of which 5 belong to Rosaceae, 4 to Asteraceae and 3 to Poaceae and Saliceae. Species inhabiting the tailings depended on their dispersal capacity, metal tolerance and rhizome strategy. Microbiological analyses revealed the low number of bacteria and fungi on the tailings pond, apart from the small uplift area where the plants were indentified. Bacteria identified on the tailings pond were classified to 8 genera. The low number of bacteria suggests the lack of nutrients which affects the development of soil microflora. Toxicity tests showed that post-flotation sludge is not toxic to microorganisms because of its high pH. Some plants, such as lucerne could even influence positively the microorganisms development what has been proved in our studies. The tailings toxicity was higher towards producers, where Secale cereale appeared to be the most sensitive species. Amendment with topsoil from adjacent areas can influence positively the phytotoxic properties of tailings and enrich them into native seeds.
Telocyte (TC) is an interstitial cell type with a small cellular body and extremely long tentacle-like extensions. TCs were discovered a decade ago and have specific morphological characteristics, immunohistochemical and secretome profi les, electrophysiological properties, microRNA expression. Moreover, they are different in gene expression from other cells. TCs play an important role in plenty of processes. Apparently, they are involved in homeostasis, remodelling, regeneration, repair, embryogenesis, angiogenesis and even tumorigenesis. “Telocytes need the world”, was emphasized by Professor Popescu and it will be actual at any time. This review summarizes particular features of TCs in different organs and systems, emphasizing their involvement in physiological and pathophysiological processes.
Introduction: Uterine leiomyoma is the most widespread benign tumor affecting women of childbearing age. There are still gaps in the understanding of its pathogenesiss. Telocytes are unique cells described in greater than 50 different locations inside the human body. The functional relationship of cells could clarify the pathogenesis of leiomyomata. In the current study, we focused on the identification of telocytes in all regions of the human uterus to explain their involvement in leiomyoma development. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples from a healthy and myomatous uterus were stained for c-kit, tryptase, CD34 and PDGFRα to identify telocytes. Routine histology was performed to analyze tissue morphology and collagen deposits. Results: Telocytes were detected in the cervix, corpus of the uterus and leiomyoma. The density of telocytes in fibroid foci was reduced compared with normal myometrium. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the existence of telocytes in all parts of the human body affected and unaff ected by leiomyoma of the uterus. In addition, telocytes were also present in leiomyoma foci. Our results suggest that the reduced density of telocytes is important for the pathomechanisms of myometrial growth, demonstrating its value as a main component of the myomatous architecture.
The paper presents analyses of current research projects connected with explosive material sensors. Sensors are described assigned to X and γ radiation, optical radiation sensors, as well as detectors applied in gas chromatography, electrochemical and chemical sensors. Furthermore, neutron techniques and magnetic resonance devices were analyzed. Special attention was drawn to optoelectronic sensors of explosive devices.
The main goal of this study was to investigate possible residua of thymic tissue in 100 adult cadavers with no thoracic pathology known before, by dissection of standard locations of thymic tissue in perithyroid, periaortic, peritracheal and retrotracheal spaces, as well as areas located next to the course of phrenic, vagus and left recurrent laryngeal nerves. Thus obtained tissue samples were studied by two pathologists independently. The remnants of the thymic tissue were found in 61 out of 100 specimens studied. It means that residua of ectopic thymic tissue is common, which may have a huge impact on the results of treatment of many diseases i.e. myasthenia gravis in course of thymoma.