The paper describes second order generalized integrator (sogi) which is specialized in band-pass filtering and orthogonalization of periodic signals. Modifications of the structure and the influence of parameters on the system performance is described. The article highlights the particular importance of model discretization method in the practical implementation, as well as reviews estimation methods of the: amplitude, frequency, offset and phase angle of the periodic signal. Examples of simulation and experimental results are presented.
By means of small wind turbines, it is possible to create distributed sources of electricity useful in areas with good wind conditions. Sometimes, however, it is possible to use small wind turbines also in areas characterized by lower average wind speeds during the year. At the small wind turbine design stage, various types of technical solutions to increase the speed of the wind stream, as well as to optimally orientate it, can be applied. The methods for increasing the efficiency of wind energy conversion into electricity in the case of a wind turbine include: the use of a diffuser shielding the turbine rotor and the optimization of blades mounted on the turbine rotor. In the paper, the influence of the diffuser and rotor blades geometry on the efficiency of an exemplary wind turbine for exploitation in the West Pomeranian Province is investigated. The analyses are performed for three types of the diffuser and for three types of rotor blades. Based on them, the most optimal shapes of the diffuser and blades are selected due to the efficiency of the wind turbine. For the turbine with the designed diffuser, calculations of the output power for the assumed different values of the average annual wind speed and the constant Betz power factor and the specified generator efficiency are made. In all the analyzed cases, the amount of energy that can be generated by the turbine during the year is also estimated. Important practical conclusions are formulated on the basis of these calculations. In the final part of the paper, a 3D model of the wind turbine with the diffuser and rotor blades chosen based on earlier analyses is presented. As a material for the diffuser and rotor blades, glass fiber type A is applied. By means of calculations using the finite element method, the limit displacement of the turbine structure under the influence of a hurricane wind are determined. Based on these calculations, the correctness of the modelled small wind turbine structure has been demonstrated.
Increasing environmental pressure against waste disposal, particularly fine waste surface storage and concern about mining damages have resulted in an increase in the popularity of a fly ash, tailing and binding agent mixture used as compaction grout of roof fall rocks in a gob area of longwalls. Backfilling of voids forming as a result of exploitation with the fall of roof with mixtures containing fine-grained industrial wastes is a common practice in coal mines. It is aimed at achieving numerous technological and ecological advantages as well as at controlling mining hazards. Research on hydraulic transport of fine-grained slurry conducted to date focused mainly on issues related to the analysis of the conditions related to pipeline transportation. The processes concerning the propagation of mixtures within the gob, on the other hand, remain largely unknown. The process of flow of fine-grained slurry through the caving is subject to a series of factors related, among other things, with the properties of the applied wastes and mixtures, the characteristics of the gob as well as the variability of these properties during the flow through the gob and in time. Due to the lack of sufficient knowledge pertaining to the changes taking place in the gob and in the slurry while it penetrates the gobs, no methods allowing for the design and optimization of the gob grouting process have been established so far. The paper presents the selected results of laboratory tests regarding the flow of ash and water mixtures in a model of a gob, pertaining to two selected types of fly ash produced in hard coal combustion, particularly concerning the impact of the type of the ash and the density of the slurry on the effectiveness of the gob grouting process.
The paper presents the results of research work on the development of a rapidprototyping test stand for testing: servo control algorithms, trajectory generation, algorithms for increasing overall quality of the feed-drive modules within two axis (X-Y) table of the milling machine. Open architecture interface of the prepared control system lets the potential user test functionality of integration of diagnostic tools within the motion controller - directly, without taking into account communication with top-level CNC system.
The paper presents a new geotechnical solution indicating a possibility of effective building structures protection. The presented solutions enable minimization of negative effects of underground mining operations. Results of numerical modelling have been presented for an example of design of preventive ditches reducing the influence of mining operations on the ground surface. To minimize the mining damage or to reduce its reach it is reasonable to look for technical solutions, which would enable effective protection of building structures. So far authors concentrated primarily on the development of building structure protection methods to minimize the damage caused by the underground mining. The application of geotechnical methods, which could protect building structures against the mining damage, was not considered so far in scientific papers. It should be noticed that relatively few publications are directly related to those issues and there are no practical examples of effective geotechnical protection. This paper presents a geotechnical solution indicating a possibility of effective protection of building structures. The presented solutions enable minimization of negative effects of underground mining operations. Results of numerical modelling have been presented for an example of design of preventive ditches reducing the influence of mining operations on the ground surface. The calculations were carried out in the Abaqus software, based on the finite element method.
This work presents the methodology for analyzing the impact of ground vibrations induced during the drilling of gas/oil exploration wells on the surrounding constructions, as well as on humans and the natural environment. In the primary stage, this methodology is based on measurements of ground vibrations induced by a specific type of drilling system in the so-called reference site. In the next stage, ground vibrations are estimated in similar conditions to another design site, these conditions are assumed for a given drilling system, treated as a vibration source. In both sites, special seismic and geotechnical data are collected to construct numerical models for dynamic analyses. Finally, if it is required, a protection system is proposed with respect to the drilling technology and local conditions. The methodology presented has been tested on the terrain of an active natural gas mine used as the design site, and located in the southeastern part of Poland. The reference site was placed in the terrain of a working drilling system in similar conditions in the central part of Poland. Based on the results of numerical simulations, one may verify the different locations of the drilling rig in the design site with respect to the existing industrial structure. Due to the hazard from destructive ground vibrations, a certain vibroisolation system was proposed at the design site. Based on the results of numerical simulations one could rearrange the components of the drilling system in order to provide maximum security for the surrounding structures.