The aim of this study was to compare effect of combinations of intravenous isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), acetate Ringer, lactate Ringer and small-volume hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCI) solutions along with oral electrolyte solutions (OES) on the treatment of neonatal calf diarrhea with moderate dehydration and metabolic acidosis. Thirty-two calves with diarrhea were used in the study. Calves were randomly assigned to receive acetate Ringer solution (n=8), lactate Ringer solution (n=8), isotonic NaHCO3 (n=8) and 7.2% saline solutions (n=8), and two liters of OES were administrated to all calves orally at the end of intravenous administration. Blood samples for blood gas and biochemical analyses were collected at 0 hours and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours intervals. All the calves had mild to moderate metabolic acidosis on admission. Increased plasma volume and sodium concentration, but decreased serum total protein were observed within 0.5 hours following administration of hypertonic 7.2% NaCI + OES, compared to other 3 groups. In conclusion, administration of intravenous hypertonic 7.2% NaCI solution in small volume along with OES provided fast and effective improvement of dehydration and acid-base abnormalities within short time in treatment of calf diarrhea with moderate dehydration and metabolic acidosis.
A new 4-D dynamical system exhibiting chaos is introduced in this work. The proposed nonlinear plant with chaos has an unstable rest point and a line of rest points. Thus, the new nonlinear plant exhibits hidden attractors. A detailed dynamic analysis of the new nonlinear plant using bifurcation diagrams is described. Synchronization result of the new nonlinear plant with itself is achieved using Integral Sliding Mode Control (ISMC). Finally, a circuit model using MultiSim of the new 4-D nonlinear plant with chaos is carried out for practical use.