Search results

Filters

  • Journals
  • Authors
  • Date
  • Type

Search results

Number of results: 10
items per page: 25 50 75
Sort by:

Abstract

The author updates the state of knowledge about the origins of Polish coinage in the late tenth and early eleventh centuries. This became possible due to new coin finds and the use of new research methods and, above all, revealing new die-links. The author concludes that it was not Mieszko I (c. 962–992), but his son Boleslaus the Brave (992–1025) who began Polish coinage. This early coinage was more intensely produced and more diverse than was previously thought. In one mint, correctly inscribed dies and corrupted imitations of foreign patterns were used simultaneously. Coins served the purpose of both propaganda and economic tools. They accounted for a small proportion of the prevailing foreign coins in circulation.
Go to article

Abstract

W 2008 r. w miejscowości Kvie na Gotlandii odkryto dalszych 20 monet ze skarbu ujawnionego już w 1929 roku (tpq 1027). Wśród nowych okazów rozpoznano denar Bolesława Chrobrego (992–1025) (Ryc. 1). Awers został wybity już znanym stemplem awersu typu Dux inclitus, rewers natomiast nowym stemplem naśladującym rewers pensa Etelreda II (978–1016) typu Crux (991–997). Monetę służącą wzorem wybił w Yorku mincerz o imieniu Thurstan (Ryc. 3). Dwie dalsze monety Bolesława Chrobrego wybite tym samym stemplem rewersu udało się odszukać przy pomocy Williama Leana w zbiorach brytyjskich: w British Museum (kolekcja Elmore Jonesa; ryc. 5) i w Merseyside County Museums w Liverpool (ryc. 4). Awersy tych monet, również identyczne, noszą znane już naśladownictwo stempla Etelreda II typu Last Small Cross (1009–1017). Odkrycia te wzbogacają uzupełniany już blisko od stulecia (E. Majkowski, Z. Zakrzewski, S. Suchodolski; ryc. 6) łańcuch połączeń stempli monet Chrobrego trzech typów: I polskiego z napisem BOLIZAS DVX — INCLITVS (ryc. 7), II anglosaskiego z imieniem króla Etelreda (ryc. 4 i 5) i III bawarskiego ze zniekształconym imieniem króla Henryka II (1002–1014) (ryc. 10). Typ anglosaski dotychczas był znany tylko z awersu, obecnie poznaliśmy również stronę odwrotną. Interesujące jest jednak, że wzorce tych stempli mają różną chronologię. Awers naśladuje monetę z Lincoln z lat ok. 1013–1017 (ryc. 2), rewers natomiast monetę z Yorku około 20 lat starszą (ryc. 3). Wykonawcą stempli był człowiek o dużych umiejętnościach, który nie został jednak wykorzystany do dalszej produkcji menniczej w Polsce. W obrębie wspomnianej grupy stemple wielokrotnie łączą się ze sobą (Ryc. 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11). Świadczy to o tym, że były używane w tym samym miejscu, w zbliżonym czasie i zapewne też w zbliżonym czasie zostały wytworzone (ok. 1015–1020). Na początku tego okresu — lub może nawet parę lat wcześniej — powstał typ bawarski. Przyczyny połączeń były różnorodne: zarówno techniczne (chęć maksymalnego wykorzystania stempli), jak też ekonomiczne (chęć zarekomendowania własnych monet), a pewną rolę mógł odegrać również przypadek. Wagi monet tej grupy są mocno zróżnicowane (1,05–1,97 g), a ich wagi średnie stosunkowo wysokie (1,485, 1,64, 1,36 g) i zbliżają się do wagi innych monet Bolesława Chrobrego z drugiej połowy panowania. Znaleziska zawierające te monety mają stosunkowo duży rozrzut (Wielkopolska, Mazowsze, Małopolska, Pomorze, Gotlandia, Norwegia, Rosja). Bite były zapewne, tak jak i inne monety Bolesława Chrobrego, w Wielkopolsce lub na północnym Mazowszu, w jednym z głównych centrów jego państwa.
Go to article

Abstract

In Sowinki near Poznan 150 graves were discovered during archaeological examination of an inhumation cemetery from the 10th–12th century. The following four coins were found in the graves: 1. a fragment of an Arabic dirham from the 10th century, 2. a fragment of King Otto III’s (983–996) pfennig of Trier; 3. a fragment of a coin imitating Otto- Adelheid pfennigs; 4. a whole cross penny from the 11th century. The round plate, lost before examination, may have been the fifth coin. In grave 76 a two-pan scale was found, together with 18 weights: 6 from bronze-coated iron and 12 from lead. All the finds were made in the older part of the site, dated to the end of the 10th and the first half of the 11th century.
Go to article

Abstract

During archaeological research in Łosień (c 32 km NE of Katowice), an early medieval smelting centre from the eleventh and twelfth centuries was revealed where lead and silver were smelted. Besides production equipment devices, seven iron, bronze-plated weights (weighing: 40 g, 39.7 g, 40 g, 40 g, 24.4 g, 17.19 g, 10.59 g) and elements of beam scales were discovered here. Nearby, a settlement was revealed. The whole complex was destroyed as a result of an armed attack. A hoard containing 1106 coins and 179 fragments of amorphous silver was discovered in the settlement (it is not clear whether it was located inside a building). All the coins were Polish: a younger variant of a cross-penny (1), and pennies of Boleslas III (1), Ladislas II (189) and Boleslas IV (949). These were almost exclusively coins minted around the middle of the twelfth century. The structure of the hoard does not reflect the structure of money circulating on the market. At that time, periodical exchange of issues was conducted every few years and use of only the coins of the newest type — at least in relations with the state — was obligatory. So the hoard was purposefully set aside as a treasure. It contains mostly better coins, minted according to the standard of 360 pennies to the mark (type 4 of Ladislas II and types 1 and 2a of Boleslas IV). A few slightly worse coins were collected, issued according to the standard of 480 pennies to the mark (types 2b and 3 of Boleslaus IV). However at the time of the deposit such standards were already a thing of the past: the standard of at least 540 pieces to the mark was already binding then. Only four specimens of such poor coins (type 4 of Boleslaus IV) were added to the hoard. It is probable that another money devaluation was related to the concealment of hoard. The presence of non-monetary silver in the hoard also proves it to have been intended as an accumulation of value in itself, consistent with the non-circulating character of the deposit. In Łosień, coins of these types have been found in a large hoard near Kraków for the first time. Previously known deposits occurring in central Poland, Great Poland, the Lublin region, and even in Silesia, made it possible to conjecture the existence of one more workshop operating in Great Poland, e.g. in Gniezno, where some types of Boleslaus IV’s coins might have been minted. Now these speculations have lost their raison d’etre. The analyses of the metal composition indicate the similarity of silver in coins and silver lumps, but the latter lack a deliberate admixture of copper. A single bracteate of Lower Silesia from the end of the thirteenth or the beginning of the fourteenth century, with bull’s head, was also found in the remains of a richly equipped dwelling house. There is no strict analogy with the bracteates in the literature.
Go to article

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more