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In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast proces so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part (layer) is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.
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Abstrakt

In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer). The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.
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The article presents results of research on the influence of variable parameters of horizontal continuous casting on the structure of AlCu4MgSi (EN AW-2017A) alloy ingots. The special character of the process allows for a continuous change of some of its parameters, namely, of the casting speed and of the rate of the cooling fluid flow thorough the crystallizer. These parameters have a significant impact on the crystallization process of the liquid metal. Depending on the cooling rate, intensity of the convection inside the solidifying alloy, and its chemical composition, there may arise some differences in the structure of the cast. In this study, ingots obtained at different casting speeds have been analyzed. The research methodology, based on light microscopy and electron microscopy (SEM), as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), allowed for a thorough examination of the structure of the studied materials. The results were shown that an increase in the ingot casting speed leads to an increase in the average grain surface area.
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The paper presents the research results of the influence of the precipitation hardening on hardness and microstructure of selected Al-Si and Al-Cu alloys obtained as 30 mm ingots in a horizontal continuous casting process. The ingots were heat treated in process of precipitation hardening i.e. supersaturation with subsequent accelerated or natural ageing. Moreover in the range of the study it has been carried out investigations of chemical constitution, microscopic metallographic with use of scanning electron microscope with EDS analysis system, and hardness measurements using the Brinell method. On basis of obtained results it has been concluded that the chemical constitution of the investigated alloys enables to classify them into Al alloys for the plastic deformation as EN AW-AlSi2Mn (alternatively cast alloy EN AC-AlSi2MgTi) and as EN AW-AlCu4MgSi (alternatively cast alloy EN AC-AlCu4MgTi) grades. Moreover in result of applied precipitation hardening has resulted in the precipitation from a supersaturated solid solution of dispersive particles of secondary phases rich in alloying element i.e. Si and Cu respectively. In consequence it has been obtained increase in hardness in case of AlSi2Mn alloy by approximately 30% and in case of AlCu4MgSi alloy by approximately 20% in comparison to the as-cast state of continuous ingots.
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In paper is presented idea of construction and influence of selected parts of stand of horizontal continuous casting on quality of pure Al and AlSi2 alloy ingots. The main parts of the made stand belong to induction furnace, which is also tundish, water cooled continuous casting mould, system of recooling, system of continuous ingot drawing and cutting. Mainly was considered influence of electromagnetic stirrer, which was placed in continuous casting mould on refinement of ingots structure. Effect of structure refinement obtained by influence of electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by use of traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing of additives i.e. Ti and B to metal bath. The results of studies show possibility of effective refinement of Al and AlSi2 alloy primary structure, only with use of horizontal electromagnetic field and without necessity of application of inoculants. This method of inoculation is important, because inoculants decrease the degree of purity and electrical conductivity of pure aluminum and moreover are reason of point cracks formation during rolling of ingots.
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In paper is presented results of studies concerning ingot of Al with a purity of 99.5% cast with use of stand of horizontal continuous casting. Mainly together with casting velocity was considered influence of electromagnetic stirrer, which was placed in continuous casting mould on refinement of ingots structure and theirs usability to plastic deformation. Effect of structure refinement and usability to plastic deformation obtained by influence of electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by use of traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing of additives i.e. Ti and B to metal bath. On the basis of obtained results was affirmed that inoculation realized by electromagnetic stirring in range of continuous casting mould guarantees improvement in structure refinement and usability to rolling of pure Al continuous ingots.
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In this paper crystallization studies of low-alloyed construction cast steel were presented for different additions of chromium, nickel and molybdenum modified with vanadium and titanium. Studies were conducted using developed TDA stand, which additionally enabled evaluation of cooling rate influence on crystallization process of investigated alloys.
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The paper presents the research results of horizontal continuous casting of ingots of aluminium alloy containing 2% wt. silicon (AlSi2). Together with the casting velocity (velocity of ingot movement) we considered the influence of electromagnetic stirring in the area of the continuous casting mould on refinement of the ingot’s primary structure and their selected mechanical properties, i.e. tensile strength, yield strength, hardness and elongation. The effect of primary structure refinement and mechanical properties obtained by electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by using traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing additives, i.e. Ti, B and Sr, to the metal bath. On the basis of the obtained results we confirmed that inoculation done by electromagnetic stirring in the range of the continuous casting mould guarantees improved mechanical properties and also decreases the negative influence of casting velocity, thus increasing the structure of AlSi2 continuous ingots.
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The paper presents an innovative method of creating the layered castings. The innovation relies on application the 3D printing insert obtaining in SLM (selective laser melting) method. This type of scaffold insert made from pure Ti powder, was placed into mould cavity directly before pouring by grey cast iron. In result of used method was obtained grey cast iron casting with surface layer reinforced by titanium carbides. In range of studies were carried out metallographic researches using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, microhardness measurements and abrasive wear resistance. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that there is a possibility of reinforcing surface layer of the grey cast iron casting by using 3D printing scaffold insert in the method of mould cavity preparation. Moreover there was a local increase in hardness and abrasive wear resistance in spite of the precipitation of titanium carbides in surface layer of grey cast iron. While the usable properties of composite surface layer obtained in result of use of the method presented in the paper, strongly depend of dimensions of scaffold insert, mainly parameters Re and Ri.
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In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.
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