Abstract In this paper it is shown that M class PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) reference model for phasor estimation recommended by the IEEE Standard C37.118.1 with the Amendment 1 is not compliant with the Standard. The reference filter preserves only the limits for TVE (total vector error), and exceeds FE (frequency error) and RFE (rate of frequency error) limits. As a remedy we propose new filters for phasor estimation for M class PMU that are fully compliant with the Standard requirements. The proposed filters are designed: 1) by the window method; 2) as flat-top windows; or as 3) optimal min-max filters. The results for all Standard compliance tests are presented, confirming good performance of the proposed filters. The proposed filters are fixed at the nominal frequency, i.e. frequency tracking and adaptive filter tuning are not required, therefore they are well suited for application in lowcost popular PMUs.
Introduction: The prolongation of the life of men results in the growing number of people suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In 2010, BPH concerned more than 200 million men in the whole world, which at that time made up 6% of the population of men at large. Currently, the population of men in the world amounts about three billion six hundred million. The modern surgical treatment of BPH consists of minimally invasive techniques, including laser systems. Aim: Evaluation of the eff ectiveness of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) on the basis of subjective parameters assessed by patients using IPSS and QoL questionnaires as well as objective parameters obtained from results of urodynamic tests. Material and Methods: Between 2012 and 2015, 120 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were included in the study and underwent PVP. Finally, 77 patients were included in the study. In all patients, IPSS and QoL sheets were carried out 1, 6 and 12 months, and urodynamic tests 12 months after the surgical treatment. Results: The statistically signifi cant change in the value of each parameter assessed: decrease in the IPSS, QoL, PVR, Pmax, Pop, the degree of obstruction according to Schäfer and ICS nomogram, and an increase in the values of Qmax and Qave. Conclusions: Photoselective vaporization of the prostate is an eff ective method of therapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.