Compared to other European countries, Poland has scarce drinking water resources and exhibits significant variation in annual runoff. On the other hand, the geothermal water resources present in sedimentary/structural basins, mostly in the Polish Lowlands and the Podhale geothermal system, not only provide a valuable source of renewable energy, which is utilized, although only to a limited extent, but can also be used for many other purposes. The paper presents the results of studies related to the desalination of low dissolved mineral content geothermal waters from the Bańska IG-1 well using a dual hybrid system based on ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. The desalination of geothermal waters may be considered a possible solution leading to the decentralization of drinking water supply. In many cases, using cooled waters for drinking purposes may be considered an alternative method of disposing of them, in particular for open drain arrangements, i.e. where cooled water is dumped into surface waters.
When identifying the conditions required for the sustainable and long-term exploitation of geothermal resources it is very important to assess the dynamics of processes linked to the formation, migration and deposition of particles in geothermal systems. Such particles often cause clogging and damage to the boreholes and source reservoirs. Solid particles: products of corrosion processes, secondary precipitation from geothermal water or particles from the rock formations holding the source reservoir, may settle in the surface installations and lead to clogging of the injection wells. The paper proposes a mathematical model for changes in the absorbance index and the water injection pressure required over time. This was determined from the operating conditions for a model system consisting of a doublet of geothermal wells (extraction and injection well) and using the water occurring in Liassic sandstone structures in the Polish Lowland. Calculations were based on real data and conditions found in the Skierniewice GT-2 source reservoir intake. The main product of secondary mineral precipitation is calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite and calcite. It has been demonstrated that clogging of the active zone causes a particularly high surge in injection pressure during the fi rst 24 hours of pumping. In subsequent hours, pressure increases are close to linear and gradually grow to a level of ~2.2 MPa after 120 hours. The absorbance index decreases at a particularly fast rate during the fi rst six hours (Figure 4). Over the period of time analysed, its value decreases from over 42 to approximately 18 m3/h/MPa after 120 hours from initiation of the injection. These estimated results have been confi rmed in practice by real-life investigation of an injection well. The absorbance index recorded during the hydrodynamic tests decreased to approximately 20 m3/h/MPa after 120 hours.
There is often a need to improve the taste of mineral water by reducing the sulphate ion content. It was found that for such an effect, nanofiltration (NF) process can be used. In the case, the proposed formula was assumed obtaining a mineral water with reduction of H2S and SO42- content through the following processes: stripping - UF/MF or rapid fi ltration - nanofiltration - mixing with raw water or filtration through calcium bed. The paper shows the results of the tests, with use of mineral waters and nanofiltration. Commercial nanofiltration membranes NF-270 Dow Filmtec and NF-DK GE Infrastructure Water&Process Technologies were applied. NF was carried out for mixed water from both water intakes (1 and 2), recovery of 50%, at transmembrane pressure of 0.8-1.2 MPa in the dead-end fi ltration mode. In addition, the permeate obtained in NF was filtered through a column fi lled with 1.0-3.0 mm limestone rock, in order to improve the composition of mineral water. The tested mineral water is the sulphate-chloride-sodium-calcium-magnesium in nature and contains 991 mg/L of SO42- and 2398 mg/L of TDS, while the permeate after NF showed the chloride - sodium hydrogeochemical type (TDS: 780-1470 mg/L, sulfate 10-202.7 mg/L, calcium 23-39.7 mg/L, magnesium 11-28 mg/L). As a result of water treatment in the NF process, high reduction of SO42- ions was obtained (79-98.7%), while the TDS was reduced in 51-64%. Because the process of NF allows for relatively high reduction of bivalent ions, a significant reduction in calcium ion content (84-88%) and magnesium (84-89%) has been also obtained. Monovalent ions were reduced to a lesser extent, i.e. sodium in 46% and bicarbonates in 39-64.1%. Despite obtaining the positive effect of the sulphate ions content reduction, the NF process significantly changed the mineralogy composition of water. The permeate filtration (DK-NF membrane) on the CaCO3 deposit led to a correction of the hydrogeochemical type of water from chloridesodium to chloride-bicarbonate-sodium. The concentration of calcium ions was increased by 60.5% and was 28.2 mg/L, and bicarbonate ions by 7.78% (increased to 195 mg/L). Based on a morphological assessment of the deposits in the SEM image and their chemical composition, the presence of gypsum crystals was detected on the surface of the NF-270 membrane. The deposits formed on the NF-DK membrane were of a completely different character as aggregations of iron and aluminium oxides/hydroxides were found. Such significant mineralogical differences between the secondary deposits crystallising on the surface of the membranes point to the impact of several factors, including membrane characteristics, concentration polarisation, mass transport mechanisms, etc.
A prospective brown coal mine "Legnica" is to be responsible for forming a depression funnel which can cover "Ścinawskie Swamps" where 26 herbaceous plant species forming 7 communities were recognized, among others: Phragmitetum australis, Caricetum gracilis and Acoretum calami. Investigated wetland characterizes changeable level of water which brings about the presence of as many as 30.77% species connected with Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class. The half of taxa belongs to synantropic species, while 50% are non - synantropic ones. The area of "Ścinawskie Swamps" can be assessed as featuring moderately high nature values and, therefore worth further protection as ecological areas.
The subject of investigations was the fragment of low peatland complex located close to Miękinia, about 30 km from Wrocław. Within the range of the examined area of peat bog complex there can be distinguished three parts differing in their utilization and composition of species, namely: 1/ the area degraded by the attempt to afforest it with alder trees Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner, 2/ occasionally used bog hay meadow and 3/ typical peat forming phytocenosis. Total number of determined species, belonging to 11 phytosociological classes, ranged 77, out of which more than a half constitute representatives of Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class. As far as a non-afforested area was concerned, there were determined 5 phytocenosis, including 4 classified as peat forming ones and one typical for post-bog meadows (Alopecuretum pratensis). The afforested area featured herbaceous plant composition which indicated that the area with Alopecuretum pratensis phytocenosis had been degraded. Analysis of environmental requirements, done with the use of ecological numbers, proved that prevailing number of species characterize similar requirements. It was mainly afforested part to feature taxons of broader ecological scale, e.g. Polygonum bistora L., Carex hirta L. and Plantago lanceolata L. The afforested area was purchased by a private person, therefore it can be assumed that the reason for such a way of peatlands utilization was obtaining EU subsidies at minimum work effort. A higher financial profit, however, would have been made by the owner if he had maintained a bog area as an extensive meadow.
The paper presents results of floristic investigation conducted within the territory of waste dumps in Lower Silesia: landfill of municipal waste Wrocław-Maślice, post-metallurgic waste heap in Siechnice, serpentine dumping grounds in Grochów and slag heaps in Bielawa. The investigated flora was analyzed with regard to species composition, participation of geographical-historical groups, live forms (according to classification by Raunkiaer), as well as selected ecological factors: light indicator (L), thermal indicator (T), soil moisture (W), trophic indicator (Tr), soil reaction (pH), value of resistance to increased heavy metals content (M). On 4 waste dumps there were found 269 species of vascular plants, belonging to 51 families. Only 5 species occurred on 4 sites, which provides for 2% of all plants recorded. The most numerous families are Asteraceae, Poaceae and Fabaceae. Apophytes dominate in waste dumps flora Hemicryptophytes are the most numerous group. Analysis of the floras (selected ecological factors) of investigated objects has shown general similarities, but also apparent differences. The most significant differences concerned two parameters: trophism (Tr) and resistance to increased heavy metals content (M).
M embrane-based water desalination processes and hybrid technologies are often considered as a technologically and economically viable alternative for desalination of geothermal waters. This has been conﬁrmed by the results of pilot studies concerning the UF-RO desalination of geothermal waters extracted from various geological structures in Poland. The assessment of the feasibility of implementing the water desalination process analysed on an industrial scale is largely dependent on the method and possibility of disposing or utilising the concentrate. The analyses conducted in this respect have demonstrated that it is possible to use the solution obtained as a balneological product owing to its elevated metasilicic acid, ﬂuorides and iodides ions content. Due to environmental considerations, injecting the concentrate back into the formation is the preferable solution. The energy efﬁciency and economic analysis conducted demonstrated that the cost effectiveness of implementing the UF-RO process in a geothermal system on an industrial scale largely depends on the factors related to its operation, including without limitation the amount of geothermal water extracted, water salinity, the absorption parameters of the wells used to inject water back into the formation, the scale of problems related to the disposal of cooled water, local demand for drinking and household water, etc. The decrease in the pressure required to inject water into the formation as well as the reduction in the stream of the water injected are among the key cost-effectiveness factors. Ensuring favourable desalinated water sale terms (price/quantity) is also a very important consideration owing to the electrical power required to conduct the UF-RO process.
The article presents tests results of the influence of deformation methods on the microstructure and properties of alloy WE43. There were direct extrusion tests and extrusion with KoBo method performed. An assessment of the influence of the methods of deformation on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the achieved rods from alloy WE43 was conducted. There was an analysis of microstructure carried out with the use of light and scanning microscopy techniques in the initial state and after plastic deformation. Static tensile test was conducted in temperature of 350°C at a speed of 0.0001 m·s–1 and microhardness measurements were performed of HV0.2. On the basis of the achieved mechanical tests results it was stated that in the temperature of 350°C for samples deformed with the use of KoBo method there was an effect of superplastic flow found. The value of elongation achieved was 250% which was 3 times higher than in case of classic extrusion (80%).
The paper presents a method of identifying distant emission sources of fine particulate matter PM2.5 affecting significantly PM2.5 concentrations at a given location. The method involves spatial analysis of aggregate information about PM2.5 concentrations measured at the location and air masses backward trajectories calculated by HYSPLIT model. The method was examined for three locations of PM2.5 measurement stations (Diabla Góra, Gdańsk, and Katowice) which represented different environmental conditions. The backward trajectories were calculated starting from different heights (30, 50, 100 and 150 m a. g. l.). All points of a single backward trajectory were assigned to the PM2.5 concentration corresponding to the date and the site of the beginning of trajectory calculation. Daily average concentrations of PM2.5 were used, and in the case of Gdańsk also hourly ones. It enabled to assess the effectiveness of the presented method using daily averages if hourly ones were not available. Locations of distant sources of fine particulate matter emission were determined by assigning to each grid node a mean value of PM2.5 concentrations associated with the trajectories points located within the so-called search ellipse. Nearby sources of fine particulate matter emission were eliminated by filtering the trajectories points located close to each other (so-called duplicates). The analyses covered the period of January-March 2010. The results indicated the different origin of air masses in the northern and southern Poland. In Diabla Góra and Gdańsk the distant sources of fine particulate matter emission are identified in Belarus and Russia. In Katowice the impact of the Belarusian PM2.5 emission sources was also noted but as the most important fine particulate matter emission sources were considered those located in the area of Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Ukraine.