The paper presents major issues associated with the problem of modelling change output accelerometers. The presented solutions are based on the weighted least squares (WLS) method using transformation of the complex frequency response of the sensors. The main assumptions of the WLS method and a mathematical model of charge output accelerometers are presented in first two sections of this paper. In the next sections applying the WLS method to estimation of the accelerometer model parameters is discussed and the associated uncertainties are determined. Finally, the results of modelling a PCB357B73 charge output accelerometer are analysed in the last section of this paper. All calculations were executed using the MathCad software program. The main stages of these calculations are presented in Appendices A−E.
The paper presents a procedure for correction of the error of an ECG signal, introduced by the skin-electrode interface. This procedure involves three main measuring-calculating stages: parametrical identification of the mathematical model of the interface, realized directly before the diagnostic measurements, registration of the signal at the output of electrodes as well as reconstruction of the input signal of the interface. The first two stages are realized in the on-line mode, whereas the operation of signal reconstruction presents a numerical task of digital signal processing and is realized in the off-line mode through deconvolution of the registered signal with the transfer function of the skin-electrode interface. The aim of the paper is to discuss in detail the procedure of parametric identification of the skin-electrode interface with the use of a computer system equipped with a DAQ card and LabVIEW software. The algorithm for error correction introduced by this interface is also presented.
The aim of the study is to compare the development of self-esteem and identity integration over time among people with disability and without it (data from norm groups), including people with a spinal cord injury as well as with disabilities caused by other reasons. The research examined self-esteem and identity integration of individuals with disability with regard to disability duration, gender, age, correlation analysis of self-esteem and identity integration. The sample consisted of 133 individuals with acquired disabilities. The study used the Polish adaptations of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Multidimensional Self-Assessment Inventory. Additionally, the respondents with disability completed a form with questions about their age, gender, disability duration and its cause. The outcomes of SES and MSEI modules were checked against the norm groups. The results demonstrated that self-esteem and identity integration do not vary with regard to gender, age or acquired disability conditions. The differences between subjects with disability and the normalized group have proven to be negligible. However, the factor that turned out to be highly significant was the disability duration. Differences have been observed among groups with disability lasting up to 4 months, from 4 months to 2 years, from 2 to 6 years and over 6 years. To sum up, self-esteem and identity integration correlation proved to be high and positive. These findings suggested that the higher the self-esteem, the more integrated the identity, regardless of either the disability type or its degree. The level of self-esteem is subject to differentiation primarily due to disability duration.
In this study, weather conditions causing warm waves in north−western Spits − bergen, exemplified by Ny− Å lesund station, were analyzed. Between 1981 and 2010, 536 days with the maximum temperature exceeding 8.3 ° C (the value of 95 percentile) were selected. 37 warm waves, which altogether lasted 268 days, were identified. A typical feature of pressure pattern causing warm waves was the appearance of positive anomalies of both the sea level pressure and the height of isobaric surface 500 hPa in the Euro−Atlantic sector of the Arctic. This indicates a presence of high−pressure systems in this region. Extremely warm days appeared more often with the circulation from the eastern than the western sector. Longer and warmer heat waves occurring in the last decade of the analyzed period may be considered as a sign of climate warming, which has a significant impact on environment, i.e. reduction in area and thickness of glaciers, reduction of permafrost and snow cover, changes in biodiversity, etc . The increase in the air temperature and more frequent occurrence of heat waves may encourage development of tourism in polar areas, potentially causing further changes in the environment.
Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious and economically important disease in the poultry industry caused by avian avulavirus-1, historically known as Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Control of ND primarily relies on prophylactic vaccination of flocks, and many vaccines are available on the market, both conventional and more recently introduced new generation recombinant types. To assess the protection level achieved by vaccination ELISA tests are typically used, they also are to track an infection with field strains in non-vaccinated flocks. Special modifications of ELISA can be used as a screening tool to detect infection in flocks vaccinated with new generation vaccines. In this study, we have developed an ELISA test for the detection of antibodies against the nucleoprotein (NP) of NDV and for differentiation of chickens vaccinated with commercial and prototype in-house recombinant vector vaccines from those infected with field NDV strains. The NP gene of LaSota NDV strain expressed in a baculovirus vector was used as a coating antigen in the ELISA. The developed test was optimized, validated and compared to other serological tests. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of recombinant NP protein-based ELISA were respectively 96.1%, 96.3%, and 96.2%. Inter-rater (kappa) agreement between the NP-ELISA and the gold standard HI test was calculated to be 0.995. In our comparisons, commercially available ELISA tests revealed different specificities ranging from 95.5–100% and sensitivities at variance, ranging from 90.1 to 99.0%. A high level of maternally derived antibodies was measured in the serum of 1-day-old broilers in the NP-ELISA assay. These antibodies had disappeared and were undetected at 3, 5 and 6 weeks post-vaccination but birds became positive again at 2 weeks after control infection with a velogenic NDV strain. In SPF chickens, antibodies against NP protein were detected only after a challenge. The recombinant NP protein-based ELISA test is sensitive, specific and accurate when compared to the gold standard HI test and commercially available kits. Moreover, the method could be also used for the differentiation between vaccinated and infected birds.