The increasing threat of terrorist attacks in Europe and social demands for governmental actions towards facilitating an information exchange between the national authorities responsible for public security, lead to the spectacular shift towards collection of passengers’ data. Initially, the idea had concerned mainly aviation passengers’ data and was limited to international flights only. But soon it was extended in order to include the Passenger Name Records (PNR) from domestic transport. Recently, we can see tensions to expand the PNR collection scheme to other means of transport including maritime routes. The paper studies the most developed system created in Belgium and assesses its influence on possible all-European solutions. When presenting the main problems connected with profiling the passengers and data sharing between institutions, it discusses a lack of precise privacy impact assessment and the need for necessity and proportionality studies to be carried out both at the level of Member States and in the EU discussion on the implementation of the so called PNR Directive and on the new requirements for the digital registration of passengers and crew sailing on board European passenger ships included in 2017 amendments to Directive 98/41/EC.
The article discusses data processing in e-Maritime systems. Operations within those systems are automatic, yet the actual system machinery is poorly understood by lawyers. The authors call for greater involvement of scholars and practicing lawyers in e-Maritime development. The article analyses e-Maritime systems as implemented by Singapore Port and the european e-Maritime initiative. Furthermore, the authors examine electronic documents in Polish administrative and civil law — in particular, electronic bill of lading, NCTS communication, electronic transport records, electronic billing and the Internet of Things.