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Abstrakt

Abstract Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate the role of brassinosteroids (BRs), an important class of phy-tohormone in plant growth, development, and photomorphogenesis. Different wavelengths of light recognized by photoreceptors play a crucial role in plant development. The role of different photoreceptors in BR signaling has not been analyzed. Here we used photoreceptor single mutants, double mutants and even a quadruple mutant to analyze BR-dependent hypocotyl growth and gene regulation. All the photoreceptor mutants differed from the controls in their response to BR, and hypocotyl elongation as well as BR marker gene regulation were inhibited by application of propiconazole (PCZ), a BR biosynthesis inhibitor. In addition, altered Phytochrome and Cryptochrome expression in brassinosteroid insensitive 1 mutant bri1-5 and brassinazole-resistant 1 dominant mutant bzr1-D indicated that BR negatively regulates photoreceptors in transcriptional levels. This is the first study to investigate the connections between BR and photoreceptors in Arabidopsis.
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Abstrakt

Abstract Soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive factor attachment adaptor protein receptor (SNARE) domain-containing proteins were mainly involved in vesicle-associated membrane fusion. Genetic screening has revealed the function of SNARE in different aspects of plant biology. Among them, Synthaxin-22 (SYP22) a Qa-SNARE has been reported to have a pleiotropic function in plant development including regulation of leaf waving, shoot gravitropism and flowering time. In this study, we identified a new role of SYP22 in regulation of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, especially in the dark. SYP22 interacts with BR receptor, brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1), and overexpression of SYP22 enhanced a weak BRI1 mutant bri1-5 phenotype. syp22 mutant exhibits short hypocotyl and it is sensitive to exogenously treated BR while slightly insensitive to BR-biosynthesis inhibitor propiconazole (PCZ) in the dark. Expression levels of BR signaling maker genes ACS5, SAUR15 and IAA19 were slightly higher, while BR6OX2, a BR biosynthesis marker gene, was lower in syp22 compared to the wild-type. In addition, syp22 was sensitive to 2,4-D, a synthetic auxin, in the dark. In conclusion, SYP22 is involved in BR- and auxin-mediated hypocotyl growth inhibition in the dark, which might be via interaction with BR and auxin key regulators to alter their internalization in Arabidopsis.
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Abstrakt

Abstract NH4+ is an important N-source which regulates plant growth and development. However, the underlying mechanism of NH4+ uptake and its-mediated signaling is poorly understood. Here, we performed phosphoproteomic studies using the titanium dioxide (TiO2)-mediated phosphopeptides collection method together with LC-MS analysis. The results indicated that phosphorylation levels of 23 and 43 peptides/proteins involved in diverse aspects, including metabolism, transport and signaling pathway, were decreased and increased respectively after NH4+ treatment in rice roots. Among 23 proteins detected, IDD10, a key transcription factor in ammonium signaling, was identified to reduce phosphorylation level of S313 residue. Further biochemical analysis using IDD10-GFP transgenic plants and immunoprecipitation assay confirmed that NH4+ supply reduces IDD10 phosphorylation level. Phosphorylation of ammonium transporter 1;1 (AMT1;1) was increased upon NH4+ treatment. Interestingly, phosphorylation of T446, a rice specific residue against Arabidopsis was identified. It was also established that phosphorylation of T452 is conserved with T460 of Arabidopsis AMT1;1. Yeast complementation assay with transformation of phosphomimic forms of AMT1;1 (T446/D and T452/D) into 31019b strain revealed that phosphorylation at T446 and T452 residues abolished AMT1;1 activity, while their plasma membrane localization was not changed. Our analyses show that many proteins were phosphorylated or dephosphorylated by NH4+ that may provide important evidence for studying ammonium uptake and its mediated signaling by which rice growth and development are regulated.
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