In the current study, twenty lambs, aged 4 months, half male and half female, were classified into four groups, with five in each group. The experimental three groups of lambs were given intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations of recombinant ovine interferon-τ (roIFN-τ). The fourth group (normal control) of lambs was given normal saline injections in the same way. After administrations, blood samples were collected from the tested animals at different time points post injection, and the serum titers of roIFN-τ were measured using cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition bioassay. The results of calculating pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters using DAS software showed that the PK characteristics of roIFN-τ through IV injection conformed to the two-compartment open model, whose half-life of distribution phases (T1/2α) was 0.33±0.034 h and the elimination half-life(T1/2β) was 5.01±0.24 h. However, the PK features of IM injection and SC injection of roIFN-τ conformed to the one compartment open model, whose Tmax were 3.11±0.26 h and 4.83±0.43 h, respectively, together with an elimination half life(T1/2β) of 9.11±0.76 h and 7. 43±0.58 h, and an absorption half-life (T1/2k(a)) of 1.13±0.31 h and 1.85±0.40 h, respectively. The bioavailability of roIFN-τ after IM administration reaches 73.57%, which is greater than that of SC administration (53.43%). These results indicate that the drug administration effect can be preferably obtained following a single dose IM administration of the roIFN-τ aqueous preparation. This study will facilitate the clinical application of roIFN-τ as a potential antiviral agent in future work.
A speaker recognition system based on joint factor analysis (JFA) is proposed to improve whispering speakers’ recognition rate under channel mismatch. The system estimated separately the eigenvoice and the eigenchannel before calculating the corresponding speaker and the channel factors. Finally, a channel-free speaker model was built to describe accurately a speaker using model compensation. The test results from the whispered speech databases obtained under eight different channels showed that the correct recognition rate of a recognition system based on JFA was higher than that of the Gaussian Mixture Model-Universal Background Model. In particular, the recognition rate in cellphone channel tests increased significantly.
The accuracy and reliability of Kalman filter are easily affected by the gross errors in observations. Although robust Kalman filter based on equivalent weight function models can reduce the impact of gross errors on filtering results, the conventional equivalent weight function models are more suitable for the observations with the same noise level. For Precise Point Positioning (PPP) with multiple types of observations that have different measuring accuracy and noise levels, the filtering results obtained with conventional robust equivalent weight function models are not the best ones. For this problem, a classification robust equivalent weight function model based on the t-inspection statistics is proposed, which has better performance than the conventional equivalent weight function models in the case of no more than one gross error in a certain type of observations. However, in the case of multiple gross errors in a certain type of observations, the performance of the conventional robust Kalman filter based on the two kinds of equivalent weight function models are barely satisfactory due to the interaction between gross errors. To address this problem, an improved classification robust Kalman filtering method is further proposed in this paper. To verify and evaluate the performance of the proposed method, simulation tests were carried out based on the GPS/BDS data and their results were compared with those obtained with the conventional robust Kalman filtering method. The results show that the improved classification robust Kalman filtering method can effectively reduce the impact of multiple gross errors on the positioning results and significantly improve the positioning accuracy and reliability of PPP.
The Gaussian mixture model (GMM) method is popular and efficient for voice conversion (VC), but it is often subject to overfitting. In this paper, the principal component regression (PCR) method is adopted for the spectral mapping between source speech and target speech, and the numbers of principal components are adjusted properly to prevent the overfitting. Then, in order to better model the nonlinear relationships between the source speech and target speech, the kernel principal component regression (KPCR) method is also proposed. Moreover, a KPCR combined with GMM method is further proposed to improve the accuracy of conversion. In addition, the discontinuity and oversmoothing problems of the traditional GMM method are also addressed. On the one hand, in order to solve the discontinuity problem, the adaptive median filter is adopted to smooth the posterior probabilities. On the other hand, the two mixture components with higher posterior probabilities for each frame are chosen for VC to reduce the oversmoothing problem. Finally, the objective and subjective experiments are carried out, and the results demonstrate that the proposed approach shows greatly better performance than the GMM method. In the objective tests, the proposed method shows lower cepstral distances and higher identification rates than the GMM method. While in the subjective tests, the proposed method obtains higher scores of preference and perceptual quality.
The microstructures and mechanical properties of T92 martensitic steel/Super304 austenitic steel weld joints with three welding consumables were investigated. Three types of welding materials ERNiCr-3, ERNiCrCoMo-1and T-304H were utilized to obtain dissimilar welds by using gas tungsten arc weld (GTAW). The results show that heat affect zone (HAZ) of T92 steel consists of coarse-grained and fine-grained tempered martensites. The microstructures of joints produced from ERNiCrCoMo-1 consist of equiaxed dendrite and columnar dendrite grains, which are more complicated than that of ERNiCr-3. In the tensile tests, joints constructed from ERNiCrCoMo-1 and T-304H met the ASME standard. The highest fracture energy was observed in specimens with the welding material ERNiCrCoMo-1. Ni content in weld seam of ERNiCrCoMo-1 was highest, which was above 40%. In conclusion, the nickel alloy ERNiCrCoMo-1 was the most suitable welding material for joints produced from T92 martensitic steel/Super304 austenitic steel.
To reduce the influence of the static unbalance on an infrared missile guidance system, a new static unbalance measure system for the gimbals axes has been developed. Considering the coupling effects caused by a mass eccentricity, the static balance condition and measure sequence for each gimbal axis are obtained. A novel static unbalance test approach is proposed after analyzing the dynamic model of the measured gimbal axis. This approach is to drive the measured gimbal axis to do sinusoidal reciprocating motion in a small angle and collect its drive currents in real time. Then the static unbalance of the measured gimbal axis can be obtained by the current multi-cycle integration. Also a measuring system using the proposed approach has been developed. A balanced simulator is used to verify the proposed approach by the load and repeatability tests. The results show the proposed approach enhances the efficiency of the static unbalance measurement, and the developed measuring system is able to achieve a high precision with a greater stability.
Owing to the dramatic change in the thermal conductivity of 4He when its temperature crosses the transition of superfluid (HeI) and normalfluid (HeII), a sealed-cell with a capillary is used to realize the lambda transition temperature, Tλ. A small heat flow is controlled through the capillary of the sealed-cell so as to realize the coexistence of HeI and HeII and maintain the stay of HeI/HeII interface in the capillary. A stable and flat lambda transition temperature "plateau" is obtained. Because there is a depression effect of Tλ caused by the heat flow through the capillary, a series of heat flows and several temperature plateaus are made and an extrapolation is applied to determine Tλ with zero heat flow. A rhodium-iron resistance thermometer with series number A34 (RIRT A34) has been used in 24 Tλ -realization experiments to derive Tλ with a standard deviation of 0.022mK, which proves the stability and reproducibility of Tλ.
This paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of an improved thin-film thermal converter based on an electro-thermally excited and piezo-resistively detected micro-bridge resonator. The resonant thermal converter comprises a bifilar heater and an opposing micro-bridge resonator. When the micro-bridge resonator absorbs the radiant heat from the heater, its axial strain changes, then its resonant frequency follows. Therefore the alternating voltage or current can be transferred to the equivalent DC quantity. A non-contact temperature sensing mechanism eliminates heat loss from thermopiles and reduces coupling capacitance between the temperature sensor and the heater compared with traditional thin-film thermal converters based on thermopiles. In addition, the quasi-digital output of the resonant thin-film thermal converter eliminates such problems as intensity fluctuations associated with analogue signals output by traditional thin-film thermal converters. Using the fast-reversed DC (FRDC) method, the thermoelectric transfer difference, which determines the frequency-independent part of the ac-dc transfer difference, is evaluated to be as low as 1:1 #1; 10��6. It indicates that the non-contact temperature sensing mechanism is a feasible method to develop a high-performance thermal converter.
To keep genetic diversity, flowering plants have developed a self-incompatibility system, which can prevent self-pollination. It has been reported that calcium concentration in pistil papilla cells was increased after self-pollination in transformed self-incompatible Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we found that CML27 changed its expression level for both mRNA and protein when compared to transcriptome and proteome. At the same time, CML27 was expressed in the anther and pistil at a high level and reached up to 5-fold up-regulated expression in the pistil at 1 h post-pollination when compared to 0 min. In order to find out potential proteins that may interact with BoCML27, BoCML27 was expressed in and isolated from E. coli. After its co-incubation with Brassica oleracea pistil proteins, the products were separated on SDS-PAGE gels. We found a specific band at the position between 130–180 kDa. Through LC-MS-MS (Q-TOF) analysis, eight proteins were identified from the band. The proteins include 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory (26S), Phospholipase D, alpha 2 (PLDα2) involved in Ca2+ binding and Coatomer subunit alpha-2-like (Coatomer) involved in vesicle mediated transport. All of these identified proteins provide new insights for the self-incompatibility response in B. oleracea, specific for increasing Ca2+ concentration in pistil papilla cells.
The data aggregation process of wireless sensor networks faces serious security problems. In order to defend the internal attacks launched by captured nodes and ensure the reliability of data aggregation, a secure data aggregation mechanism based on constrained supervision is proposed for wireless sensor network, which uses the advanced LEACH clustering method to select cluster heads. Then the cluster heads supervise the behaviors of cluster members and evaluate the trust values of nodes according to the communication behavior, data quality and residual energy. Then the node with the highest trust value is selected as the supervisor node to audit the cluster head and reject nodes with low trust values. Results show that the proposed mechanism can effectively identify the unreliable nodes, guarantee the system security and prolong the network lifetime.
This paper presents a geomagnetic detection method for pipeline defects using complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) and wavelet energy product (WEP) – Teager energy operator (TEO), which improves detection accuracy and defect identification ability as encountering strong inference noise. The measured signal is first subtly decomposed via CEEMDAN into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), which are then distinguished by the Hurst exponent to reconstruct the filtered signal. Subsequently, the scale signals are obtained by using gradient calculation and discrete wavelet transform and are then fused by using WEP. Finally, TEO is implemented to enhance defect signal amplitude, completing geomagnetic detection of pipeline defects. The simulation results created by magnetic dipole in a noisy environment, indoor experiment results and field testing results certify that the proposed method outperforms ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD)-gradient, EEMD-WEP-TEO, CEEMDAN-gradient in terms of detection deviation, peak side-lobe ratio (PSLR) and integrated side-lobe ratio (ISLR).
The drainage consolidation method has been efficiently used to deal with soft ground improvement. Nowadays, it has been suggested to use a new sand soil which is a composite of sand and recycled glass waste. The permeability performance of glass-sand soil was explored to judge the feasibility of glass-sand soil backfilled in the drainage consolidation of sand-drained ground. For comparison purposes, different mix proportions of recycled glass waste, fineness modulus, and glass particle size were analyzed to certify the impact on the permeability coefficient and the degree of consolidation. The numerical results show that adding a proper amount of recycled glass waste could promote the permeability performance of glass-sand soil, and the glasssand soil drain could be consolidated more quickly than a sand drain. Experiments showed that glass-sand soil with the a 20% mix of recycled glass waste reveals the optimum performance of permeability.
A novel phase shift full bridge (PSFB) converter with voltage-doubler and decoupling integrated magnetics in photovoltaic (PV) systems is proposed. Considering the demand that the output voltage is higher than the input voltage in PV systems, the voltage-doubler is added to achieve higher voltage gain compared with the traditional PSFB. In order to avoid current oscillation caused by the voltage-doubler and obtain the wide zero voltage switching (ZVS) ranges, an external inductor is imposed on the circuit. Especially, to obtain much higher power density, the external inductor and transformer are integrated into one magnetic core. The operation and voltage gain of proposed converter are analyzed. Also, in order to reveal the effects the integrated magnetics gives to the converter, the decoupling condition and the expression of leakage inductor of integrated magnetics are obtained in detail. Finally a 100 W prototype converter is made and the experimental results are given to verify the analysis.
In order to understand infection of avian influenza A virus (AIV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) in the Siberian Tiger in Northeast China, 75 Siberian Tiger serum samples from three cap- tive facilities in northeastern China were collected. AIV and CDV antibody surveillance was test- ed by using hemagglutination inhibition and serum neutralization methods. The results showed that the seroprevalence of H5 AIV, H9 AIV and CDV was respectively 9.33% (7/75), 61.33% (46/75) and 16% (12/75). In the 1<years <2 and > 5 year-old group, the seroprevalence of the H9 AIV was 24% and 80% (P < 0.01), and the CDV seroprevalence was 6% and 36% (P < 0.01), respectively. It was demonstrated that 3 (4%) out of 75 serum samples were AIV+CDV seropos- itive, with 2.67% (2/75) in H9+AIV and 1.33% (1/75) in H5+H9+AIV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AIV and CDV seroprevalence in Siberian Tigers in China, which will provide base-line data for the control of AIV and CDV infection in Siberian Tigers in China.
In this study, non-sintered ceramsite was prepared using coal gasiﬁcation coarse slag obtained from a methanol plant. The basic performance and heavy metal leaching toxicity were analyzed. The results showed that seven out of nine non-sintered ceramsite groups were in accordance with the national standard of compressive strength (5 MPa), while only three groups met the national standard of water absorption index of less than 22%. The heavy metal concentrations in these three groups were found to be lower than that speciﬁed in National Class IV of surface water environment standards. The concentration of Cr was found to be 16.45 μg/L, which represents only 1% of the IV standard. The optimum mixing ratio, which showed high compressive strength (6.76 MPa) and low water absorption (20.12%), was found to be 73% coal gasiﬁcation coarse slag, 15% cement, and 12% quartz sand. The characterization using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the formation of gelatin in ceramsite enhances the performance of the ceramsite base and increases the immobilization of heavy metal. The study proved that the preparation of non-sintered ceramsite using coal gasiﬁcation coarse slag reduces its environmental risk and achieves efﬁcient utilization of the slag. Therefore, it can be concluded that it is a feasible and environmental friendly method for the disposal of coal slag.