The paper presents the cellular automaton (CA) model for tracking the development of dendritic structure in non-equilibrium solidification conditions of binary alloy. Thermal, diffusion and surface phenomena have been included in the mathematical description of solidification. The methodology for calculating growth velocity of the liquid-solid interface based on solute balance, considering the distribution of the alloy component in the neighborhood of moving interface has been proposed. The influence of solidification front curvature on the equilibrium temperature was determined by applying the Gibbs Thomson approach. Solute and heat transfer equations were solved using the finite difference method assuming periodic boundary conditions and Newton cooling boundary condition at the edges of the system. The solutal field in the calculation domain was obtained separately for solid and liquid phase. Numerical simulations were carried out for the Al-4 wt.% Cu alloy at two cooling rates 15 K/s and 50 K/s. Microstructure images generated on the basis of calculations were compared with actual structures of castings. It was found that the results of the calculations are agreement in qualitative terms with the results of experimental research. The developed model can reproduce many morphological features of the dendritic structure and in particular: generating dendritic front and primary arms, creating, extension and coarsening of secondary branches, interface inhibition, branch fusion, considering the coupled motion and growth interaction of crystals.
The results of estimation of home scrap addition in charge influence on durability and wear of casting instrumentation life in the highpressure casting technology using the hot chamber machine of alloy of AZ91 are presented. The wear of the following elements of the casting instrumentation so-called "casting set" as: syphon, plunger, sliding-rings, nozzle and injection moulding nozzle was estimated. A wear was estimated quantitative by registering the number of mould injections for different charges to the moment of element damage supervision. A damage had to be at such level that liquidated an element from further exploitation and necessary was an exchange on new or regeneration. In a final result allowed it the detailed determination of durability of the applied rigging elements in dependence on the type of the applied type of melt. It is noticed, that together with the increase of home-scrap participation in the charge wear of pressure machine instrumentation elements increases.
The paper presents the possibility of application of the developed computer script which allows the assessment of non-equilibrium solidification of binary alloys in the ThermoCalc program. The script makes use of databases and calculation procedures of the POLY-3 module. A solidification model including diffusion in the solid state, developed by Wołczyński, is used to describe the non-equilibrium solidification. The model takes into account the influence of the degree of solute segregation on the solidification process by applying the so-called back-diffusion parameter. The core of the script is the iteration procedure with implemented model equation. The possibility of application of the presented calculation method is illustrated on the example of the Cr-30% Ni alloy. Computer simulations carried out with use of the developed script allow to determine the influence of the back-diffusion parameter on the course of solidification curves, solidus temperature, phase composition of the alloy and the fraction of each phase after the solidification completion, the profile of solute concentration in liquid during solidification process, the average solute concentration in solid phase at the eutectic temperature and many other quantities which are usually calculated in the ThermoCalc program.
Substituting of ethyl silicate with ecologic sols of colloidal silica in the investment casting technology, resulting from the increased demands concerning environmental protection, caused the prolongation of production cycle for precision castings produced in multi-layer thin-walled ceramic shell moulds. Modification of Sizol 030 binder with benzoyl peroxide, proposed in the paper, was aimed at restriction of time needed for realization of a single layer of the shell mould, and by the same, of such a mould as a whole. Examination of kinetics of the drying process were held for the layers made of prepared moulding material and the influence of binder modification on the mould curing time was determined.
The work deals with the influence of change in the filling conditions of the ceramic moulds with plaster binder on the presence of gaseous porosity and the microstructure of the achieved test castings with graded wall thickness. Castings made of EN AC-44000 alloy, produced either by gravity casting, or by gravity casting with negative pressure generated around the mould (according to the Vacumetal technology), or by counter-gravity casting were compared. The results of examinations concerning the density of the produced castings indicate that no significant change in porosity was found. The increased size of silicon crystals was found for the increased wall thicknesses due to the slower cooling and solidification of castings.
The presented work is aimed to deal with the influence of changes in the value of negative (relative) pressure maintained in the die cavity of pressure die casting machine on the surface quality of pressure castings. The examinations were held by means of the modified Vertacast pressure die casting machine equipped with a vacuum system. Castings were produced for the parameters selected on the basis of previous experiments, i.e. for the plunger velocity in the second stage of injection at the level of 4 m/s, the pouring temperature of the alloy equal to 640°C, and the die temperature of 150°C. The examinations were carried on for three selected values of negative gauge pressure: - 0.03, - 0.05, and - 0.07 MPa. The quality of casting was evaluated by comparing the results of the surface roughness measurements performed for randomly selected castings. The surface roughness was measured by means of Hommel Tester T1000. After a series of measurements it was found that the smoothest surface is exhibited by castings produced at negative gauge pressure value of - 0.07 MPa.
The paper presents the method of preparing a composite slurry composed of AlSi11 alloy matrix and 10 vol.% of SiC particles, as well as the method of its high-pressure die casting and the measurement results concerning the castability of the obtained composite. Composite castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. There were found the regression equations describing the change of castability of the examined composite as a function of pressure die casting process parameters. The conclusion gives the analysis and the interpretation of the obtained results.
The performed examinations concerning the process of filling the plaster ceramic moulds with aluminium alloys allowed to assess the influence of various methods of introducing the metal into the mould cavity on the macro- and microstructure of the obtained experimental castings. The comparison was performed for castings with graded wall thickness made either of EN AC-44000 alloy or of EN AC-46000 alloy, produced either by gravity casting, or by gravity casting with negative pressure generated around the mould (according to the Vacumetal technology), or by counter-gravity casting. It was found that the silicon crystals grow in size with an increase in wall thickness due to the slower cooling and solidification of castings.
The results of examinations of the influence of titanium-boron inoculant on the solidification, the microstructure, and the mechanical properties of AlZn20 alloy are presented. The examinations were carried out for specimens cast both of the non-modified and the inoculated alloy. There were assessed changes in the alloy overcooling during the first stage of solidification due to the nuclei-forming influence of the inoculant. The results of quantitative metallographic measurements concerning the refinement of the grain structure of casting produced in sand moulds are presented. The cooling rate sensitivity of the alloy was proved by revealing changes in morphology of the α-phase primary crystals. Differences in mechanical properties resulting from the applied casting method and optional inoculation were evaluated.
The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the influence of negative (relative) pressure in the die cavity of high pressure die casting machine on the porosity of castings made of AlSi9Cu3 alloy. Examinations were carried out for the VertaCast cold chamber vertical pressure die casting machine equipped with a vacuum system. Experiments were performed for three values of the applied gauge pressure: -0.3 bar, -0.5 bar, and -0.7 bar, at constant values of other technological parameters, selected during the formerly carried initial experiments. Porosity of castings was assessed on the basis of microstructure observation and the density measurements performed by the method of hydrostatic weighing. The performed investigation allowed to find out that – for the examined pressure range – the porosity of castings decreases linearly with an increase in the absolute value of negative pressure applied to the die cavity. The negative pressure value of -0.7 bar allows to produce castings exhibiting porosity value less than 1%. Large blowholes arisen probably by occlusion of gaseous phase during the injection of metal into the die cavity, were found in castings produced at the negative pressure value of -0.3 bar. These blowholes are placed mostly in regions of local thermal centres and often accompanied by the discontinuities in the form of interdendritic shrinkage micro-porosity. It was concluded that the high quality AlSi9Cu3 alloy castings able to work in elevated temperatures can be achieved for the absolute value of the negative pressure applied to the die cavity greater than 0.5 bar at the applied set of other parameters of pressure die casting machine work.
The work presents the investigation results concerning the structure of composite pressure die castings with AlSi11 alloy matrix reinforced with SiC particles. Examination has been held for composites containing 10 and 20 volume percent of SiC particles. The arrangement of the reinforcing particles within the matrix has been qualitatively assessed in specimens cut out of the castings. The index of distribution was determined on the basis of particle count in elementary measuring fields. The tensile strength, the yield point and elongation of the obtained composite were measured. Composite castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. The regression equation describing the change of the considered arrangement particles index and mechanical properties were found as a function of the pressure die casting parameters. The infuence of particle arrangement in composite matrix on mechanical properties these material was examined and the functions of correlations between values were obtained. The conclusion gives the analysis and the interpretation of the obtained results.
The results of castability and structures researches of two nickel base alloys - Ceranium CN and Magnum AN applied on casting of the crowns and dental bridges are presented. Studies were carried out on the alloys cast under the centrifugal force to the moulds made by the lost wax method using production line of ROKO. Having regard to a specific technology of casting and possibility of ROKO production line, to the estimation of alloys castability a spiral test was adjusted with a 0,8 mm and a 2,5 mm diameter of test casting. Measuriements executed on a 20 test castings allowed to establish, that castability of Magnum AN alloy was 65 % greater than castability of Ceranium NC alloy. The results of thermodynamics calculations of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium crystallization (Scheil model) of the investigated alloys are presented too. The characteristic temperatures of phase transformation and forecast phase composition of alloys for both kind of crystallization were calculated. It is established after structural supervisions, that the investigated alloys crystallize in dendryte form and in centrifugal casting conditions have cooling rate sensivity and inclination to texture structure forming in outmost layer of casting. Phase composition of alloys corresponds to the results of thermodynamics calculations of the nonequilibrium crystallization conditions.
The possibility of controlling the solidification and cooling time of castings creates prospects of improving their structure and by the same their properties. Thermal properties of the mould constitute therefore an important factor which is necessary to consider while seeking for the mentioned improvement. The presented work illustrates the method of determining some basic thermal coefficients of moulding material, i.e. the coefficient of temperature equalisation a2, known also as the temperature diffusivity, and the heat accumulation coefficient b2, which characterises the ability of moulding material to draw away the heat from a casting. The method consists in experimental determining the temperature field within the mould during the processes of pouring, solidification and cooling of the casting. The performed measurements allow for convenient and exact calculations of the sought-after coefficients. Examinations were performed for the oil bonded moulding sand of trade name OBB SAND ‘E’. The experiment showed that the obtained value of b2 coefficient differs from the value calculated on the basis of theoretical considerations available in publications. Therefore it can be stated that theoretical calculations of the heat accumulation coefficient are thus far not sufficient and not quite reliable, so that these calculations should be verified experimentally.
The paper present the examination results concerning mechanical properties of castings made of AlSi7MG alloy in correlation both with the most significant squeeze casting parameters and with the modification treatment. Experiments were planned and held according to the 2 3 factorial design. The regression equations describing the influence of the squeeze pressure, the mould temperature, and the quantity of strontium modifier on the strength and elongation of the examined alloy were obtained. It was found that the main factor controlling the strength increase is the squeeze pressure, while the plasticity (A5 ) of the alloy is affected most advantageously by modification. The application of modification treatment in squeeze casting technology enables for production of the slab-type castings made of AlSi7Mg alloy exhibiting strength at the level of 230 MPa and elongation exceeding 14%.
A numerical model of binary alloy crystallization, based on the cellular automaton technique, is presented. The model allows to follow the crystallization front movement and to generate the images of evolution of the dendritic structures during the solidification of a binary alloy. The mathematic description of the model takes into account the proceeding thermal, diffusive, and surface phenomena. There are presented the results of numerical simulations concerning the multi-dendritic growth of solid phase along with the accompanying changes in the alloying element concentration field during the solidification of Al + 5% wt. Mg alloy. The model structure of the solidified casting was achieved and compared with the actual structure of a die casting. The dendrite interaction was studied with respect to its influence on the generation and growth of the primary and secondary dendrite arms and on the evolution of solute segregation both in the liquid and in the solid state during the crystallization of the examined alloy. The morphology of a single, free-growing dendritic crystal was also modelled. The performed investigations and analyses allowed to state e.g. that the developed numerical model correctly describes the actual evolution of the dendritic structure under the non-equilibrium conditions and provides for obtaining the qualitatively correct results of simulation of the crystallization process.
The work presents the results of examinations concerning the influence of various amounts of home scrap additions on the properties of castings made of MgAl9Zn1 alloy. The fraction of home scrap in the metal charge ranged from 0 to 100%. Castings were pressure cast by means of the hot-chamber pressure die casting machine under the industrial conditions in one of the domestic foundries. The examinations consisted in the determination of the following properties: tensile strength Rm, yield strength Rp0.2, and the unit elongation A5, all being measured during the static tensile test. Also, the hardness measurements were taken by the Brinell method. It was found that the mechanical properties (mainly the strength properties) are being improved up to the home scrap fraction of 50%. Their values were increased by about 30% over this range. Further rise in the home scrap content, however, brought a definite decrease in these properties. The unit elongation A5 exhibited continual decrease with an increase in the home scrap fraction in the metal charge. A large growth of hardness was noticed for the home scrap fraction increasing up to the value of 50%. Further increasing the home scrap percentage, however, did not result in a significant rise of the hardness value any more.
The work presents the results of examinations concerning the influence of various amounts of home scrap additions on the porosity of castings made of MgAl9Zn1 alloy. The fraction of home scrap in the metal charge ranged from 0 to 100%. Castings were pressure cast by means of the hot-chamber pressure die casting machine under the industrial conditions in one of the domestic foundries. Additionally, for the purpose of comparison, the porosity of specimens cut out directly of the MgAl9Zn1 ingot alloy was also determined. The examinations consisted in the qualitative assessment of porosity by means of the optical microscopy and its quantitative determination by the method of weighting specimens in air and in water. It was found during the examination that the porosity of castings decreases with an increase in the home scrap fraction in the metal charge. The qualitative examinations confirmed the beneficial influence of the increased home scrap fraction on the porosity of castings. It was concluded that the reusing of home scrap in a foundry can be a good way of reduction of costs related to the production of pressure castings.