This paper presents a complex study of anhydrite interbeds influence on the cavern stability in the Mechelinki salt deposit. The impact of interbeds on the cavern shape and the stress concentrations were also considered. The stability analysis was based on the 3D numerical modelling. Numerical simulations were performed with use of the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and the FLAC3D v. 6.00 software. The numerical model in a cuboidal shape and the following dimensions: length 1400, width 1400, height 1400 m, comprised the part of the Mechelinki salt deposit. Three (K-6, K-8, K-9) caverns were projected inside this model. The mesh of the numerical model contained about 15 million tetrahedral elements. The occurrence of anhydrite interbeds within the rock salt beds had contributed to the reduction in a diameter and irregular shape of the analysed caverns. The results of the 3D numerical modelling had indicated that the contact area between the rock salt beds and the anhydrite interbeds is likely to the occurrence of displacements. Irregularities in a shape of the analysed caverns are prone to the stress concentration. However, the stability of the analysed caverns are not expected to be affected in the assumed operation conditions and time period (9.5 years).
The work deals with possibilities of using this specific material. It is focused on cast metal foams with a regular arrangement of internal cells and it refers to already used casting technologies – the production of metal foamswith the aid of sand cores. Metal foamsare used in many industries, such as: automotive, aerospace, construction, power engineering. They have unique propertiesand due to lower weight with sufficient strength and greater contact surface can be used, for example, for the conduction of heat. This article deals with the useof the metal foam as a heat exchanger. The efficiency of the heat exchanger depends on its shape and size and therefore the study is focused first on the optimization of the shape before the proper manufacture.
The article describes the process of creating 3D models of architectural objects on the basis of video images, which had been acquired by a Sony NEX-VG10E fixed focal length video camera. It was assumed, that based on video and Terrestrial Laser Scanning data it is possible to develop 3D models of architectural objects. The acquisition of video data was preceded by the calibration of video camera. The process of creating 3D models from video data involves the following steps: video frames selection for the orientation process, orientation of video frames using points with known coordinates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), generating a TIN model using automatic matching methods. The above objects have been measured with an impulse laser scanner, Leica ScanStation 2. Created 3D models of architectural objects were compared with 3D models of the same objects for which the self-calibration bundle adjustment process was performed. In this order a PhotoModeler Software was used. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed 3D models of architectural objects, points with known coordinates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning were used. To assess the accuracy a shortest distance method was used. Analysis of the accuracy showed that 3D models generated from video images differ by about 0.06 ÷ 0.13 m compared to TLS data.
Terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is a new class of survey instruments to capture spatial data developed rapidly. A perfect facility in the oil industry does not exist. As facilities age, oil and gas companies often need to revamp their plants to make sure the facilities still meet their specifications. Due to the complexity of an oil plant site, there are difficulties in revamping, having all dimensions and geometric properties, getting through narrow spaces between pipes and having the description label of each object within a facility site. So it is needed to develop an accurate observations technique to overcome these difficulties. TLS could be an unconventional solution as it accurately measures the coordinates identifying the position of each object within the oil plant and provide highly detailed 3D models. This paper investigates creating 3D model for Ras Gharib oil plant in Egypt and determining the geometric properties of oil plant equipment (tank, vessels, pipes . . . etc.) using TLS observations and modeling by CADWORX program. The modeling involves an analysis of several scans of the oil plant. All the processes to convert the observed points cloud into a 3D model are described. The geometric properties for tanks, vessels and pipes (radius, center coordinates, height and consequently oil volume) are also calculated and presented. The results provide a significant improvement in observing and modeling of an oil plant and prove that the TLS is the most effective choice for generating a representative 3D model required for oil plant revamping.