Results of a research on influence of chromium, molybdenum and aluminium on structure and selected mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions are presented. All raw castings showed austenitic matrix with relatively low hardness, making the material machinable. Additions of chromium and molybdenum resulted in higher inclination to hard spots. However, a small addition of aluminium slightly limited this tendency. Heat treatment consisting in soaking the castings at 500 °C for 4 h resulted in partial transformation of austenite to acicular, carbon-supersaturated ferrite, similar to the bainitic ferrite. A degree of this transformation depended not only on the nickel equivalent value (its lower value resulted in higher transformation degree), but also on concentrations of Cr and Mo (transformation degree increased with increasing total concentration of both elements). The castings with the highest hard spots degree showed the highest hardness, while hardness increase, caused by heat treatment, was the largest in the castings with the highest austenite transformation degree. Addition of Cr and Mo resulted in lower thermodynamic stability of austenite, so it appeared a favourable solution. For this reason, the castings containing the highest total amount of Cr and Mo with an addition of 0.4% Al (to reduce hard spots tendency) showed the highest tensile strength.
The effects of carbon content on the austenite stability and strain-induced transformation of nanocrystalline Fe-11% Ni alloys were investigated using X-ray analysis and mechanical tests. The nanocrystalline FeNiC alloy samples were rapidly fabricated using spark plasma sintering because of the extremely short densification time, which not only helped attain the theoretical density value but also prevented grain growth. The increased austenite stability resulted from nanosized crystallites in the sintered alloys. Increasing compressive deformation increased the volume fraction of strain-induced martensite from austenite decomposition. The kinetics of the strain-induced martensite formation were evaluated using an empirical equation considering the austenite stability factor. As the carbon content increased, the austenite stability was enhanced, contributing to not only a higher volume fraction of austenite after sintering, but also to the suppression of its strain-induced martensite transformation.
A mathematical model of austenite - bainite transformation in austempered ductile cast iron has been presented. The model is based on a model developed by Bhadeshia [1, 2] for modelling the bainitic transformation in high-silicon steels with inhibited carbide precipitation. A computer program has been developed that calculates the incubation time, the transformation time at a preset temperature, the TTT diagram and carbon content in unreacted austenite as a function of temperature. Additionally, the program has been provided with a module calculating the free energy of austenite and ferrite as well as the maximum driving force of transformation. Model validation was based on the experimental research and literature data. Experimental studies included the determination of austenite grain size, plotting the TTT diagram and analysis of the effect of heat treatment parameters on the microstructure of ductile iron. The obtained results show a relatively good compatibility between the theoretical calculations and experimental studies. Using the developed program it was possible to examine the effect of austenite grain size on the rate of transformation.
In this paper, the effect of changes the parameters of heat treatment on the structure and the degree of elements segregation was determined, in the context of corrosion resistance of ductile iron Ni-Mn-Cu, containing 7.2% Ni, 2.6% Mn and 2.4% Cu. In the condition after casting, castings of austenitic matrix and 160HBW hardness were obtained. The achieved castings were soaked at 450, 550 and 650°C for 4, 8 and 12 hours, then cooled down at the ambient air. In most cases, the heat treatment resulted in a change in the castings matrix, had the consequence of increasing their hardness in comparison to raw castings. Increasing the temperature and prolonging soaking time resulted in increasing the degree of transformation of austenite, while reducing the degree of elements segregation. This led to the formation of slightly bigger number of pitting due to corrosion, but not so deep and more evenly distributed in comparison to raw castings. Wherein the results of corrosion tests show that heat treatment of castings did not significantly change their corrosion resistance in comparison to raw castings, in contrast to the significant increase in mechanical properties.
A research of wear resistance of an austenitic cast iron with higher resistance to abrasive-wear and maintained corrosion resistance characteristic for Ni-Resist cast iron is presented. For the examination, structure of raw castings was first formed by proper selection of chemical composition (to make machining possible). Next, a heat treatment was applied (annealing at 550 °C for 4 hours followed by air cooling) in order to increase abrasive-wear resistance. One of the factors deciding intensity of wear appeared to be the chilling degree of castings. However, with respect to unfavourable influence of chilling on machining properties, an important factor increasing abrasivewear resistance is transformation of austenite to acicular ferrite as a result of annealing non-chilled castings. Heat treatment of non-chilled austenitic cast iron (EquNi > 16%) resulted in much higher abrasive-wear resistance in comparison to the alloy having pearlitic matrix at ambient temperature (EquNi 5.4÷6.8%).