Building on the argument of an earlier contribution of James K. Aitken (2000), this article aims to explain why the Greek toponym Σαττιν does not translate the word הַ שּׁ טּים (Shittim) in LXX Micah 6:5. The Massoretic text reads ‘from Shittim to Gilgal’. The LXX translator uses σχοῖνος to appeal to all readerships. While the educated reader is aware of the location and significance of Shittim, these might not be obvious for the less educated majority. As the meaning of σχοῖνος varies (rush, reed, bramble, thorn, and a type of measure used in Egypt, or even a more generic bush), its interpretation changes as one contemplates in context each of these meanings. Ultimately, the simplest audience could read this extension of time/space of ἀπὸ τῶν σχοίνων ἕως τοῦ Γαλγαλ as referring to the whole history of Exodus, from the burning bush to Gilgal.
The new investigation method of the kinetics of the gas emission from moulding sands used for moulds and cores is presented in this paper. The gas evolution rate is presented not only as a function of heating time but also as a function of instantaneous temperatures. In relation to the time and heating temperature the oxygen and hydrogen contents in evolving gases was also measured. This method was developed in the Laboratory of Foundry Moulds Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH. Gas amounts which are emitted from the moulding sand at the given temperature recalculated to the time unit (kinetics) are obtained in investigations. Results of investigations of moulding sand with furan resin are presented - as an example - in the paper.