The organic carbon (OC)-rich, black shale succession of the Middle Triassic Bravaisberget Formation in Spitsbergen contains scattered dolomite-ankerite cement in coarser-grained beds and intervals. This cement shows growth-related compositional trend from non-ferroan dolomite (0–5 mol % FeCO3) through ferroan dolomite (5–10 mol % FeCO3) to ankerite (10–20 mol % FeCO3, up to 1.7 mol % MnCO3) that is manifested by zoned nature of composite carbonate crystals. The d13C (-7.3‰ to -1.8‰ VPDB) and d18O (-9.4‰ to -6.0‰ VPDB) values are typical for burial cements originated from mixed inorganic and organic carbonate sources. The dolomite-ankerite cement formed over a range of diagenetic and burial environments, from early post-sulphidic to early catagenic. It reflects evolution of intraformational, compaction-derived marine fluids that was affected by dissolution of biogenic carbonate, clay mineral and iron oxide transformations, and thermal decomposition of organic carbon (decarboxylation of organic acids, kerogen breakdown). These processes operated during Late Triassic and post-Triassic burial history over a temperature range from approx. 40°C to more than 100°C, and contributed to the final stage of cementation of the primary pore space of siltstone and sandstone beds and intervals in the OC-rich succession.
In the article problems related to human labor and factors affecting the increasing use of industrial robots are discussed. Since human factors affect the production processes stability, robots are preferred to apply. The application of robots is characterized by higher performance and reliability comparing to human labor. The problem is how to determine the real difference in work efficiency between human operator and robot. The aim of the study is to develop a method that allows clearly definition of productivity growth associated with the replacement of human labor by industrial robots. Another aim of the paper is how to model robotized and manual operated workstation in a computer simulation software. Analysis of the productivity and reliability of the hydraulic press workstation operated by the human operator or an industrial robot, are presented. Simulation models have been developed taking into account the availability and reliability of the machine, operator and robot. We apply OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) indicator to present how availability and reliability parameters influence over performance of the workstation, in the longer time. Simplified financial analysis is presented considering different labor costs in EU countries.
The production of thin-walled castings with wall thickness in the range of 1.5 to 3 mm and below requires the development of insulation moulding sands and/or core materials. The test has been taken to develop these kind of materials. The study included a description of their thermophysical properties. Authors described problems related to the heat flow in the casting-mould system, i.e. mathematically described the main dependence of heat give-up during crystallization of the casting. The influence of the content of polyglicol on the thermophysical properties of the mould with gypsum and cement binder was examined. Using the ATD method determined were the increments ΔT1 and ΔT2 describing the temperature changes in the mould during crystallization of hypoeutectic alloy of AlSi6 and the temperature difference between casting material and mould during the crystallization. In the considered range of technological parameters a description of the heat flow kinetics was given.
The presented paper reports data from malacological and pedological studies carried out at sites representing diverse biotopes (beech wood, coniferous forest, and meadow) located 2 km away from the Dyckerhoff Cement Plant in Sitkówka-Nowiny in 1992 and in 2008–2009. The studies aimed to determine physicochemical properties of soils exposed to cement and limestone dust emission and to identify composition of snail communities inhabiting three different biotopes in relation to physicochemical properties of soils, and to grasp the dynamics of the alkalization-dependent changes in physicochemical properties of soils and their impact on the composition and ecological structure of malacofauna.