During austral summer phytoplankton is the main component of food of E. superba postlarval stages. Diatomeae: Thalassiosira spp., Nitzschia spp. and tiny Pennatae constitue 98% of all consumed food particles. 91% of algae consumed were of 8—40 μm, and their mean size is 21.4 μm. The mean amount of algae found in of Euphausia superba was about 1700 per individual. The differences in species composition and the size of algae eaten by juvenes, preadult and adult individuals decrease the food competition between particular age groups of E. superba.
Stosowanie biomasy w energetyce jest działaniem w ramach zastępowania paliw kopalnych pozyskiwaniem energii ze źródeł odnawialnych. Jednak jej stosowanie jako paliwa stałego ze względu na różnorodność stosowanej biomasy powoduje powstawanie odpadów o bardzo zróżnicowanym i niestabilnym składzie chemicznym. Odpady ze spalania biomasy są surowcem o bardzo zróżnicowanym składzie nawet w przypadku spalania biomasy jednego rodzaju. Zawartość poszczególnych pierwiastków w popiołach lotnych ze spalania biomasy waha się od zera do kilkudziesięciu procent. To zróżnicowanie powoduje, że trudno znaleźć dla nich metody odzysku. Najczęściej rozpatrywane kierunki stosowania popiołów ze spalania biomasy to produkcja materiałów budowlanych i rolnictwo. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań pierwiastkowych składów chemicznych z podziałem na najczęściej stosowane paliwa z biomasy. Zaprezentowane zostały wyniki dotyczące pierwiastkowych składów chemicznych popiołów lotnych ze spalania biomasy leśnej i rolniczej w kotłach fluidalnych w energetyce zawodowej. Popioły te charakteryzują się wysoką zawartością: wapnia (12,3–19,4%), krzemu (1,2–8,3%), potasu (0,05–1,46%), chloru (1,1–6,1%), żelaza (0,8–6,5%). Nie stwierdzono w nich obecności sodu. Tylko w jednym z 5 popiołów stwierdzono obecność glinu. We wszystkich badanych popiołach stwierdzono obecność: manganu, chromu, miedzi, niklu, ołowiu, cynku, siarki, bizmutu, cyrkonu, tytanu. Analiza pierwiastkowych składów chemicznych może pozwolić na wstępne określenie kierunku odzysku dla danego popiołu.
Myślą przewodnią rozważania nad kompozycyjnymi i architektonicznymi wyznacznikami tożsamości miejsc w krajobrazie (w konsekwencji – tożsamości krajobrazów) jest w znacznej mierze geneza ich powstania i ocena ich przemian w czasie. Można zatem mówić o idei „dawnej” i „nowej” tożsamości miejsca (krajobrazu będącego jego zewnętrznym wyrazem). Zwłaszcza w przypadku, gdy wykazujemy „dobrą” postawę wobec tego, co określa „kulturę miejsca” wynikającą z jego „umiłowania” i chęci współuczestniczenia w zaczętym wobec niego dziele stworzenia. Humanitarna postawa w omawianym tu duchu troski o zastane dziedzictwo kulturowe i wyrażający je krajobraz każdorazowo może być identyfikowane z tożsamością miejsca lub jej składowymi (tradycją, kulturą , kanonem). Jest bowiem oczywiste, że w duchu kontynuacji dobrej postawy (trwającej miłości do tych obszarów) często w miejscu „dawnej” (dobrej) tożsamości – chcemy i wręcz musimy zaproponować „nową ” (dobrą ) tożsamość – zgodnie z celami i zakresami ochrony poszczególnych obszarów , w tym ich kompozycyjnej czy architektonicznej wartości. Autor podjął próbę przedstawienia tych idei na przykładzie bezprecedensowej w skali kraju, a nawet Europy rewitalizacji krajobrazu warownego Twierdzy Zamość.
Nematoda, Tardigrada, Rotifera and Crustacea composition in different freshwater habitats on Spitsbergen (Arctic) and King George Island (Antarctic) was presented. In all surveyed groups more genera and species were recorded from Spitsbergen than from King George Island. Habitats richest in taxa were moss banks and thaw ponds, whereas streams were poorest in species. In all groups in both regions cosmopolitan species dominated, but higher number of endemic species was recorded on King George Island. Regarding species composition in surveyed groups it can be suggested that freshwater habitats on Spitsbergen are more similar to each other than those on King George Island.
Changes in body mass and body reserves of Little Auks (Alle alle) were studied throughout the breeding season. Body mass loss after chick hatching was analyzed with respect to two hypotheses: (1) mass loss reflects the stress of reproduction, (2) mass loss is adaptive by reducing power consumption during flight. Body mass of both males and females increased during incubation, dropped abruptly after hatching, and remained stable until the end of the chick-rearing period. These changes were largely due to change in mass of fat reserves. Body mass, fat, and protein reserves, when corrected for body size, did not differ between sexes at the end of incubation. Female size-corrected body mass at that time was correlated with peak body mass of chicks. The estimated energy savings for flight due to the decline in adult body mass after chick hatching were small compared with the total energy expenditure of adults feedings chicks, which did not support hypothesis (2). The contribution to chick feeding was not equal; the ratio of females to males caught with food for chicks was 1.8. Size-corrected body mass during chick-rearing was lower in females, proportional to their higher chick feeding effort compared with males. Females, in contrast to males, lost protein reserves during chick-rearing. Digestive tract mass of adults increased by half throughout the breeding period. These findings supported elements of hypothesis (1). Despite high energy expenditure rates, both sexes had about 10 g of fat reserves at the end of chick feeding. Body mass of both sexes was constant during the greater part of the chick-feeding period. It was suggested therefore that mass loss is regulated with respect to lower fat reserves required during chick-rearing.
Definition of a composite  describes an ideal composite material with perfect structure. In real composite materials, structure is usually imperfect – composites contain various types of defects [2, 3–5], especially as the casted composites are of concern. The reason for this is a specific structure of castings, related to course of the manufacturing process. In case of metal matrix composite castings, especially regarding these manufactured by saturation, there is no classification of these defects [2, 4]. Classification of defects in castings of classic materials (cast iron, cast steel, non-ferrous alloys) is insufficient and requires completion of specific defects of mentioned materials. This problem (noted during manufacturing metal matrix composite castings with saturated reinforcement in Institute of Basic Technical Sciences of Maritime University Szczecin) has become a reason of starting work aimed at creating such classification. As a result, this paper was prepared. It can contribute to improvement of quality of studied materials and, as a consequence, improve the environment protection level.
This paper presents matters related to production of ceramic and cast iron composite. The composite was made with the use of a foam structured ceramic insert. The tests included measuring of hardness, impact strength and resistance to abrasive wear of the composite produced. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that the use of foamed ceramic filters provides good conditions of filling a ceramic framework with molten grey or chromium cast iron. The growth of hardness of the ceramic- grey cast iron composite is ca. 60% as compared to the grey cast iron hardness. The growth of hardness of the ceramic- chromium cast iron composite is slight and does not exceed 5 % in comparison to the chromium cast iron. Introduction of the ceramic inserts deteriorates the cast iron impact strength by ca. 20 - 30 %. The use of ceramic inserts increases the resistance to abrasive wear in case of grey cast iron by ca. 13% and in case of the chromium cast iron by ca. 10 %.
The multiple direct remelting of composites based on the A359 alloy reinforced with 20% of Al2O3 particles was performed. The results of both gravity casting and squeeze casting were examined in terms of the obtained microstructure and mechanical characteristics. In microstructure examinations, the combinatorial method based on phase quanta theory was used. In mechanical tests, the modified low cycle fatigue method (MLCF) was applied. The effects obtained after both gravity casting and squeeze casting were compared. It was noted that both characteristics were gradually deteriorating up to the tenth remelting. The main cause was the occurrence of shrinkage porosity after the gravity casting. Much better results were obtained applying the squeeze casting process. The results of microstructure examinations and fatigue tests enabled drawing the conclusion that the A359 alloy reinforced with Al2O3 particles can confer a much better fatigue life behavior to the resulting composite than the A359 alloy without the reinforcement. At the same time, comparing these results with the results of the previous own research carried out on the composites based also on the A359 alloy but reinforced in the whole volume with SiC particles, it has been concluded that both types of the composites can be subjected to multiple remelting without any significant deterioration of the structural and mechanical characteristics. The concepts and advantages of using the combinatorial and MLCF methods in materials research were also presented
Diagnostics of composite castings, due to their complex structure, requires that their characteristics are tested by an appropriate description method. Any deviation from the specific characteristic will be regarded as a material defect. The detection of defects in composite castings sometimes is not sufficient and the defects have to be identified. This study classifies defects found in the structures of saturated metallic composite castings and indicates those stages of the process where such defects are likely to be formed. Not only does the author determine the causes of structural defects, describe methods of their detection and identification, but also proposes a schematic procedure to be followed during detection and identification of structural defects of castings made from saturated reinforcement metallic composites. Alloys examination was conducted after technological process, while using destructive (macroscopic tests, light and scanning electron microscopy) and non-destructive (ultrasonic and X-ray defectoscopy, tomography, gravimetric method) methods. Research presented in this article are part of author’s work on castings quality.
In this study, the vibration analysis of fully and partially treated laminated composite Magnetorheological (MR) fluid sandwich plates has been investigated experimentally. The natural frequencies of fully and partially treated laminated composite MR fluid sandwich plates have been measured at various magnetic field intensities under two different boundary conditions. The variations of natural frequencies with applied magnetic field, boundary conditions and location ofMRfluid pocket have been explored. Further, a comparison of natural frequencies of fully and partially treated MR fluid sandwich structure has been made at various magnetic field intensities.
The paper presents results of compressive strength investigations of EN AC-44200 based aluminum alloy composite materials reinforced with aluminum oxide particles at ambient and at temperatures of 100, 200 and 250C. They were manufactured by squeeze casting of the porous preforms made of α-Al2O3 particles with liquid aluminum alloy EN AC-44200. The composite materials were reinforced with preforms characterized by the porosities of 90, 80, 70 and 60 vol. %, thus the alumina content in the composite materials was 10, 20, 30 and 40 vol.%. The results of the compressive strength of manufactured materials were presented and basing on the microscopic observations the effect of the volume content of strengthening alumina particles on the cracking mechanisms during compression at indicated temperatures were shown and discussed. The highest compressive strength of 470 MPa at ambient temperature showed composite materials strengthened with 40 vol.% of α-Al2O3 particles.
The paper presents selected granular ceramic materials available on the Polish market. Their characteristics have been determined in the aspect on application in the production of iron alloy-ceramic composite. The possibility of obtaining a composite layer by means of bulk grains in molds of plates were considered, which was the foundation for experimental molds to be used in service tests. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that the knowledge of the characteristics of bulk grains enables the calculation of their quantity necessary for the composite production. When using the bulk grains the thickness of the composite layer is restricted by the thermal relations (cooler) and the physical phenomena (buoyancy, metal static pressure). Increasing amount of grains above definite condition causes surface defects in the castings. Each casting, due to its weight, shape and place of composite layer production requires an individual approach, both at the stage of formation and that of calculation of the required quantity of ceramic grains.
The paper presents a detailed description of the process of creation of a surface alloy layer (using high-carbon ferrochromium) on the cast steel casting. The mechanism of the surface alloy layer is based on the known theories [5,6]. The proposed course of formation of the layers has been extended to decarburization stage of steel. The research included proving the presence of carbon-lean zone. The experiment included the analysis of the distribution of elements and microhardness measurement.
Commercially pure titanium is less expensive, generally more corrosion resistant and lower in strength than its alloys, and is not heat-treatable. The use of Ti and its alloys as construction materials under severe friction and wear conditions is limited due to their poor tribological properties. Nevertheless, proper addition of hard ceramic particles into Ti and its alloys has proved to be an efficient way to enhance their mechanical and wear properties. Our purpose in this work was to analyze the corrosion, tribocorrosion, mechanical and morphological effects of combining titanium carbide with titanium metal, to create a unique composite via spark plasma sintering technique (SPS). Composites with different mass percentage (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %) of ceramic phase were produced. The samples of pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy were also tested, as a reference. These composites were examined for mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in an environment similar to the human body (Ringer’s solution). Open circuit potential (OPC) and anodic polarization measurements were performed. The properties of titanium composites reinforced with micro- and nanocrystalline TiC powders were compared. It was stated that wear properties were significantly improved with increasing amount of TiC in matrix, especially in the case of nanocrystalline reinforcement. In terms of corrosion resistance, the composites showed slightly worse properties compared to pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.
Winglets are introduced into modern aircraft to reduce wing aerodynamic drag and to consequently optimize the fuel burn per mission. In order to be aerodynamically effective, these devices are installed at the wing tip section; this wing region is generally characterized by relevant oscillations induced by flights maneuvers and gust. The present work is focused on the validation of a continuous monitoring system based on fiber Bragg grating sensors and frequency domain analysis to detect physical condition of a skin-spar bonding failure in a composite winglet for in-service purposes. Optical fibers are used as deformation sensors. Short Time Fast Fourier Transform (STFT) analysis is applied to analyze the occurrence of structural response deviations on the base of strain data. Obtained results showed high accuracy in estimating static and dynamic deformations and great potentials in detecting structural failure occurrences.
We fabricated two different kinds of composite materials for absorbing microwave in a frequency range of 2 to 18 GHz using coaxial airline and thru-reflect-line (TRL) method. The composite materials having carbon nanotube (CNT) with carbonyl iron (CI) or iron oxide (Fe3O4) were fabricated by mixing each components. Magnetic properties were measured by SQUID equipment. Complex permittivity and complex permeability were also obtained by measuring S-parameters of the toroidal specimen dispersing CI/CNT and Fe3O4/CNT into the 50 weight percent (wt%) epoxy resin. The real permittivity was improved by mixing the CNT however, the real permeability was same as pure magnetic powders. The CI/CNT had a maximum value of real permittivity and real permeability, 11 and 1.4 at 10 GHz, respectively. The CNT composites can be adapted to the radar absorbing materials, band width 8-12 GHz.
The effect of additives on the densification behavior and mechanical properties of pure and additive (Zr, B and Mg)-added silica ceramics were investigated for their application to the matrix phase of a silica fiber reinforced silica (SiO2/SiO2f) composite. The additives affected the rate of densification and crystallization (or transformation) of the amorphous silica. Among the compositions, pure silica ceramics sintered at 900°C for 1 h showed the maximum flexural strength. Based on the results, SiO2/SiO2f was fabricated by a repeated vacuum-assisted infiltration method followed by the heat treatment at 900°C for 1 h. The relative density of the composite was 78.2% with a flexural strength of 22.4 MPa. Fractography revealed that the composite was damaged by strong bonding at the fiber/matrix interface and the fracture of fiber.
The article presents the results of studies on the efficacy of water desalination (i.e. Elimination of NaCl ions from the solution) using graphene-polyamide composite membranes. The membrane used for filtration consists of a monolayer of polycrystalline graphene on a porous polyamide carrier support (nylon 66). The degree of desalination for an aqueous NaCl solution percolated through the membrane was 18%. In the future this type of membrane may replace the currently used reverse osmosis membranes.
This paper presents technological trials aimed at producing Ag-W, Ag-WC, Ag-W-C and Ag-WC-C composite contact materials and characterizing their properties. These materials were obtained using two methods, i.e. press-sinter-repress (PSR) at the refractory phase content of less than 30% by weight as well as press-sinter-infiltration (PSI) at the refractory phase content of ≥50% by weight). The results of research into both the physical and electrical properties of the outcome composites were shown. They include the analysis of the influence of the refractory phase content (W or WC) on arc erosion and contact resistance changes for the following current range: 6 kAmax in the case of composites with a low refractory phase content, 10 kAmax in the case of composites with the refractory phase content of ≥50% by weight.
The paper presents results of bend tests at elevated temperatures of aluminium alloy EN AC-44200 (AlSi12) based composite materials reinforced with aluminium oxide particles. The examined materials were manufactured by squeeze casting. Preforms made of Al2O3 particles, with volumetric fraction 10, 20, 30 and 40 vol.% of particles joined with sodium silicate bridges were used as reinforcement. The preforms were characterised by open porosity ensuring proper infiltration with the EN AC-44200 (AlSi12) liquid alloy. The largest bending strength was found for the materials containing 40 vol.% of reinforcing ceramic particles, tested at ambient temperature. At increased test temperature, bending strength Rg of composites decreased in average by 30 to 50 MPa per 100°C of temperature increase. Temperature increase did not significantly affect cracking of the materials. Cracks propagated mainly along the interfaces particle/matrix, with no effect of the particles falling-out from fracture surfaces. Direction of cracking can be affected by a small number of agglomerations of particles or of non-reacted binder. In the composites, the particles strongly restrict plastic deformation of the alloy, which leads to creation of brittle fractures. At elevated temperatures, however mainly at 200 and 300°C, larger numbers of broken, fragmented particles was observed in the vicinity of cracks. Fragmentation of particles occurred mainly at tensioned side of the bended specimens, in the materials with smaller fraction of Al2O3 reinforcement, i.e. 10 and 20 vol.%.
Wear resistance of TiC-cast steel metal matrix composite has been investigated. Composites were obtained with SHSB method known as SHS synthesis during casting. It has been shown the differences in wear between composite and base cast steel. The Miller slurry machine test were used to determine wear loss of the specimens. The slurry was composed of SiC and water. The worn surface of specimens after test, were studied by SEM. Experimental observation has shown that surface of composite zone is not homogenous and consist the matrix lakes. Microscopic observations revealed the long grooves with SiC particles indented in the base alloy area, and spalling pits in the composite area. Due to the presence of TiC carbides on composite layer, specimens with TiC reinforced cast steel exhibited higher abrasion resistance. The wear of TiC reinforced cast steel mechanism was initially by wearing of soft matrix and in second stage by polishing and spalling of TiC. Summary weight loss after 16hr test was 0,14÷0,23 g for composite specimens and 0,90 g for base steel
The study presents the results of research on the development of composite zones in castings based on the intermetallic phase of Ni3Al. Composite zones were obtained by placing packets with substrates for the reaction of titanium carbide in a foundry mould. To provide a variable carbides content in the composite zone, two compositions of the packets were prepared. The first packet contained only substrates for the reaction of TiC synthesis; the second one also contained a filler. The resulting composite zones in castings were examined for the filler effect on changes in the volume fraction, size and morphology of carbides in the zone. In addition, the effect of filler on the mechanical properties of the zone was verified, observing changes of Vickers hardness in this area. It was found that the presence of filler in the composition of the packet for synthesis reduced the content of carbides, as well as their size and morphology. Lower surface content of carbides reduced hardness of the zone, which enabled smooth control of the mechanical properties. At the same time, the use of the selected filler did not disturb the course of the TiC carbide synthesis.
In this study, low-carbon cast steel was reinforced with TiC by SHS-B method, also known as combustion synthesis during casting method. The composite zone was then subjected to surface remelting by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) method. The remelting operation was realized manually, at 150 A current magnitude. Microstructure, phase composition and hardness of remelted zone were investigated. XRD results reveal that the phases of the composite zone in initial state consist of TiC and Feα. Surface remelting resulted in formation of thick layers containing TiC carbides, Feα and Feγ. Microstructural examination has shown strong refinement of titanium carbides in remelted zone and complete dissolution of primary titanium carbides synthetized during casting. The average diameter of carbides was below 2 μm. The structural changes are induced by fast cooling which affects crystallization rate. The hardness (HV30) of the remelted layer was in the range between 250 HV and 425 HV, and was lower than hardness in initial state.