The paper presents the results of investigation into the technological possibility of making light-section castings of GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 cast steel. For making castings with a wall thickness in the thinnest place as small as below 1 mm, the centrifugal casting technology was employed. The technology under consideration enables items with high surface quality to be obtained, while providing a reduced consumption of the charge materials and, as a result, a reduction in the costs of unit casting production.
In the high-alloy, ferritic - austenitic (duplex) stainless steels high tendency to cracking, mainly hot-is induced by micro segregation processes and change of crystallization mechanism in its final stage. The article is a continuation of the problems presented in earlier papers [1 - 4]. In the range of high temperature cracking appear one mechanism a decohesion - intergranular however, depending on the chemical composition of the steel, various structural factors decide of the occurrence of hot cracking. The low-carbon and low-alloy cast steel casting hot cracking cause are type II sulphide, in high carbon tool cast steel secondary cementite mesh and / or ledeburite segregated at the grain solidified grains boundaries, in the case of Hadfield steel phosphorus - carbide eutectic, which carrier is iron-manganese and low solubility of phosphorus in high manganese matrix. In duplex cast steel the additional factor increasing the risk of cracking it is very "rich" chemical composition and related with it processes of precipitation of many secondary phases.
The paper presents the results of research on the microstructure of GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3 cast steels with a varying carbon content. The cause for undertaking the research were technological problems with hot cracking in bulk castings of duplex cast steel with a carbon content of approx. 0.06% and with 23% Cr, 8.5% Ni, 3% Mo and 2.4% Cu. The research has shown a significant effect of increased carbon content on the ferrite and austenite microstructure morphology, while exceeding the carbon content of 0.06% results in a change of the shape of primary grains from equiaxial to columnar.
Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) has been one of the most common viruses on cereal crops in Poland in the last years. This single stranded DNA virus is transmitted by the leafhopper spec, Psammotettix alienus (Dahlb.) in a persistent manner. It induces yellowing and streaking of leaves, dwarfing or even death of infected plants. The presence of barley- and wheat-specific forms of WDV (WDV-B and WDV-W) and their vector were previously reported in the country, however the literature data did not include any information on the infectivity of the vector in Poland. A duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was developed and optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of both forms in the vector. Two sets of primers amplify 734 bp and 483 bp specific fragments for WDV-W and WDV-B, respectively. The results were verified by a sequencing method. The studies were carried out on insect samples collected in autumn from four different locations in Greater Poland. The results confirmed the presence of WDV-W in the tested samples. They also suggested the concomitant of both forms of the virus in the vector. Additional studies to determine virus-vector relationships should be undertaken.
The sintered stainless steels of different microstructures (austenitic, ferritic and duplex) were laser surface alloyed with hard powders (SiC, Si3N4) and elemental alloying powders (Cr, FeCr, FeNi) to obtain a complex steel microstructure of improved properties. Laser surface alloying (LSA) involved different strategies of powder placing: the direct powder feeding to the molten metal pool and filling grooves machined on the sample surface by powder, and then laser surface melting. Obtained microstructures were characterised and summarised, basing on LOM, SEM and XRD analysis. The links between base material properties, like superficial hardness and microhardness, derived microstructures and erosion resistance was described. The LSA conditions and alloying powder placement strategies on erosion resistance was evaluated. The erosion wear is lower for Cr, FeCr, FeNi laser alloying, where powders were dissolved in the steel microstructure, and hard phases were not precipitated. Precipitations of hard phases (carbides, silicides, martensite formation) reduce erosion resistance of SiC alloyed stainless steel. The LSA with Si3N4 works better due to lack of precipitates and formation of a soft and ductile austenitic microstructure. The erosion wear at the impingement angle of 90° is high for hard and therefore brittle surface layers obtained as a result of alloying by hard particles (SiC, Si3N4). The softer and ductile austenitic stainless steel resist better than harder ferritic and duplex stainless steel material at studied erodent im pingement angle.
This article discusses the influence of Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) surfacing of duplex cast steel on its hardness and structure. The samples of 24Cr-5Ni-2.5Mo ferritic-austenitic cast steel were subjected to single-overlay processes with the use of solid wire having the chemical composition similar to that of the duplex cast steel. As a result of the surfacing, the welds were obtained that had no welding imperfections with a smooth transition to the base material. In the test without the heat treatment, directly below the fusion line, we observe a ferrite band with a width of approximately 200 m without visible austenite areas. Some of the samples were then solution treated (1060°C). Both variants, without and after solution heat treatment, were subjected to testing. Significant changes in the microstructure of the joint were observed after the heat treatment process (heat affected zone and weld microstructure changes). In both areas, an increase in the austenite volume fraction after solution heat treatment was observed. Changes in the microhardness of the ferrite in the HAZ area directly below the fusion line were also observed.
The paper is concerned with comparing the methods for determining the ferrite content in castings from duplex stainless steels. It uses Schaeffler diagram, empirical formula based calculation, image analysis of metallographic sample, X-ray diffraction and measurement with a feritscope. The influence of wall thickness of the casting on the ferrite content was tested too. The results of the experiments show that the casting thickness of 25 or 60 mm does not have a significant effect on the measured amount of ferrite. The image analysis of metallographic sample and the measurement with the feritscope appear to be the most suitable methods. On the contrary, predictive methods, such as Schaeffler diagram or empirical formula based calculation are only indicative and cannot replace the real measurements. X-ray diffraction seems to be the least suitable measuring method. Values of ferrite content measured in such a way often deviated from the values measured by image analysis and with feritscope.
High-alloy corrosion-resistant ferritic-austenitic steels and cast steels are a group of high potential construction materials. This is evidenced by the development of new alloys both low alloys grades such as the ASTM 2101 series or high alloy like super or hyper duplex series 2507 or 2707 [1-5]. The potential of these materials is also presented by the increasing frequency of sintered components made both from duplex steel powders as well as mixtures of austenitic and ferritic steels [6, 7]. This article is a continuation of the problems presented in earlier works [5, 8, 9] and its inspiration were technological observed problems related to the production of duplex cast steel. The analyzed AISI A3 type cast steel is widely used in both wet exhaust gas desulphurisation systems in coal fired power plants as well as in aggressive working environments. Technological problems such as hot cracking presented in works [5, 8], with are effects of the rich chemical composition and phenomena occurring during crystallization, must be known to the technologists. The presented in this work phenomena which occur during the crystallization and cooling of ferritic-austenitic cast steel were investigated using numerical methods with use of the ThermoCalc and FactSage® software, as well with use of experimental thermal-derivative analysis.
The current work presents the research results of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing and liquid friction of new austenitic, austenitic-ferritic (“duplex”) cast steel and gray cast iron EN-GJL-250, spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3, pearlitic with ledeburitic carbides and spheroidal graphite iron with ledeburitic carbides with a microstructure of the metal matrix: pearlitic, upper bainite, mixture of upper and lower bainite, martensitic with austenite, pearlitic-martensitic-bainitic-ausferritic obtained in the raw state. The wearing quality test was carried out on a specially designed and made bench. Resistance to abrasion wear was tested using sand paper P40. Resistance to adhesive wear was tested in interaction with steel C55 normalized, hardened and sulfonitrided. The liquid friction was obtained using CASTROL oil. It was stated that austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a similar value of abrasion wear and adhesive wear at rubbing friction. The smallest decrease in mass was shown by the cast steel in interaction with the sulfonitrided steel C55. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex” in different combinations of friction pairs have a higher wear quality than gray cast iron EN-GJL250 and spheroidal graphite iron EN-GJS-600-3. Austenitic cast steel and “duplex” are characterized by a lower wearing quality than the spheroidal graphite iron with bainitic-martensitic microstructure. In the adhesive wear test using CASTROL oil the tested cast steels and cast irons showed a small mass decrease within the range of 1÷2 mg.
The paper discusses possible applications of the percolation theory in analysis of the microstructure images of polycrystalline materials. Until now, practical use of this theory in metallographic studies has been an almost unprecedented practice. Observation of structures so intricate with the help of this tool is far from the current field of its application. Due to the complexity of the problem itself, modern computer programmes related with the image processing and analysis have been used. To enable practical implementation of the task previously established, an original software has been created. Based on cluster analysis, it is used for the determination of percolation phenomena in the examined materials. For comparative testing, two two-phase materials composed of phases of the same type (ADI matrix and duplex stainless steel) were chosen. Both materials have an austenitic - ferritic structure. The result of metallographic image analysis using a proprietary PERKOLACJA.EXE computer programme was the determination of the content of individual phases within the examined area and of the number of clusters formed by these phases. The outcome of the study is statistical information, which explains and helps in better understanding of the planar images and real spatial arrangement of the examined material structure. The results obtained are expected to assist future determination of the effect that the internal structure of two-phase materials may have on a relationship between the spatial structure and mechanical properties.
The microstructure and corrosion properties of spark plasma sintered yttria dispersed and yttria free duplex and ferritic stainless samples were studied. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was carried out at 1000°C by applying 50 MPa pressure with holding time of 5 minutes. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) tests were employed to evaluate pitting corrosion resistance of the samples. Corrosion studies were carried out in 0.5, 1 and 2 M concentration of NaCl and H2SO4 solutions at different quiet time of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 seconds. Yttria dispersed stainless steel samples show more resistance to corrosion than yttria free stainless steel samples. Pitting potential decreases with increase in reaction time from 2 to 10 seconds. Similarly, as concentration of NaCl and H2SO4 increases from 0.5 M to 2 M the corrosion resistance decrements due to the availability of more Cl¯ and SO4 2¯ ions at higher concentration.
The paper presents the results of examination concerning optimization of the σ phase precipitates with respect to the functional properties of ferritic-austenitic cast steel. The examined material comprised two grades of corrosion-resistant cast steel, namely GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3-3, used for example in elements of systems of wet flue gas desulphurisation in power industry. The operating conditions in media heated up to 70°C and containing Cl- and SO4 ions and solid particles produce high erosive and corrosive wear. The work proposes an application of the σ phase as a component of precipitation strengthening mechanism in order to increase the functional properties of the material. Morphology and quantities of σ phase precipitates were determined, as well as its influence on the erosion and corrosion wear resistance. It was shown that annealing at 800°C or 900°C significantly improves tribological properties as compared with the supersaturated state, and the best erosion and corrosion wear resistance achieved due to the ferrite decomposition δ → γ’ + σ was exhibited in the case of annealing at the temperature of 800°C for 3 hours.
The examined material comprised two grades of corrosion-resistant cast steel, namely GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3- 3, used for example in elements of systems of wet flue gas desulphurisation in power industry. The operating conditions in media heated up to 70°C and containing Cl- and SO4 ions and solid particles produce high erosive and corrosive wear.The work proposes an application of the σ phase as a component of precipitation strengthening mechanism in order to increase the functional properties of the material. The paper presents the results of examination of the kinetics of σ phase precipitation at a temperature of 800°C and at times ranging from 30 to 180 minutes. Changes in the morphology of precipitates of the σ phase were determined using the value of shape factor R. Resistance to erosion-corrosion wear of duplex cast steel was correlated with the kinetics of sigma phase precipitating.
The dry sliding wear behavior of heat-treated super duplex stainless steel AISI 2507 was examined by taking pin-on-disc type of wear-test rig. Independent parameters, namely applied load, sliding distance, and sliding speed, influence mainly the wear rate of super duplex stainless steel. The said material was heat treated to a temperature of 850°C for 1 hour followed by water quenching. The heat treatment was carried out to precipitate the secondary sigma phase formation. Experiments were conducted to study the influence of independent parameters set at three factor levels using the L27 orthogonal array of the Taguchi experimental design on the wear rate. Statistical significance of both individual and combined factor effects was determined for specific wear rate. Surface plots were drawn to explain the behavior of independent variables on the measured wear rate. Statistically, the models were validated using the analysis of variance test. Multiple non-linear regression equations were derived for wear rate expressed as non-linear functions of independent variables. Further, the prediction accuracy of the developed regression equation was tested with the actual experiments. The independent parameters responsible for the desired minimum wear rate were determined by using the desirability function approach. The worn-out surface characteristics obtained for the minimum wear rate was examined using the scanning electron microscope. The desired smooth surface was obtained for the determined optimal condition by desirability function approach.
A novel non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) scheme is proposed to improve the throughput and the outage probability of the cognitive radio (CR) inspired system which has been implemented to adapt multiple services in the nextgeneration network (5G). In the proposed scheme, the primary source (PS) had sent a superposition code symbol with a predefined power allocation to relays, it decoded and forwarded (DF) a new superposition coded symbol to the destination with the other power allocation. By using a dual antenna at relays, it will be improved the bandwidth efficiency in such CR NOMA scheme. The performance of the system is evaluated based on the outage probability and the throughput with the assumption of the Rayleigh fading channels. According to the results obtained, it is shown that the outage probability and throughput of the proposed full-duplex (FD) in CR-NOMA with reasonable parameters can be able deploy in practical design as illustration in numerical results section.