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Abstract

A plenum window with incorporation of Helmholtz resonators in between two glass panes was tested in a reverberation room. The effects of jagged flap on reducing strength of diffracted sound was also investigated in the present studies where white, traffic and construction noises were examined during each set of experiment. When the noise source was located at the central line of the plenum window, the plenum window with Helmholtz resonators was able to mitigate 8.5 dBA, 8.9 dBA and 8.2 dBA of white, traffic and construction noises, respectively, compared with the case of without window. These amounts of noises that attenuated by the plenum window were slightly higher than the case where noise source was diverged 30º away from the plenum window. The effects of jagged flaps on the acoustical performance of the plenum window were negligible. The Helmholtz resonators had the best performance in the frequency region between 900 Hz to 1300 Hz where in this frequency range, the plenum window with Helmholtz resonators was able to attenuate additional 1.7 dBA, 1.9 dBA and 1.6 dBA of white, traffic and construction noises, respectively, compared with the case of without resonators.
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Abstract

We propose a numerical surface integral method to study complex acoustic systems, for interior and exterior problems. The method is based on a parametric representation in terms of the arc’s lengths in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates. With this method, any geometry that involves quadric or higher order surfaces, irregular objects or even randomly rough surfaces can be considered. In order to validate the method, the modes in cubic, spherical and cylindrical cavities are calculated and compared to analytical results, which produced very good agreement. In addition, as examples, we calculated the scattering in the far field and the near field by an acoustic sphere and a cylindrical structure with a rough cross-section.
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Abstract

The photoacoustic cell is the heart of the nondestructive photoacoustic method. This article presents a new simple lumped-components CRLC model of the Helmholtz type photoacoustic cell. This model has been compared with the well known literature models describing the Helmholtz type cells for photoacoustic spectroscopy. Experimental amplitude and phase frequency data obtained for the two photoacoustic cells have been presented and interpreted in a series of models. Results of the fitting of theoretical curves, obtained in these models, to the experimental data have been shown and discussed.
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the noninvasive method of estimating the actual volume of the blood chamber of the POLVAD-EXT type ventricular assist device (VAD) during its operation. The proposed method is based on the principle of Helmholtz's acoustic resonance. Both the theory, main stages of the development of the measurement method as well as the practical implementation of the proposed method in the physical model of the POLVAD-EXT device are dealt with. The paper contains the results of static measurements by means of the proposed method (conducted at the Department of Optoelectronics, Silesian University of Technology) as well as the dynamic measurements taken at the Foundation of Cardiac Surgery Development (Zabrze, Poland) with the professional model of the human cardiovascular system. The results of these measurements prove that the proposed method allows to estimate the actual blood chamber volume with uncertainties below 10%.
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Abstract

Applying rigorous analytical methods, formulas describing the sound radiation have been obtained for the wedge region bounded by two transverse baffles with a common edge and bottom. It has been assumed that the surface sound source is located at the bottom. The presented formulas can be used to calculate the sound pressure and power inside the wedge region. They are valid for any value of the wedge angle and represent a generalization of the formulas describing the sound radiation inside the two and three-wall corner region. Moreover, the presented formulas can be easily adapted for any case when more than one sound source is located at the bottom. To demonstrate their practical application, the distribution of the sound pressure modulus and the sound power have been analyzed in the case of a rectangular piston located at the wedge’s bottom. The influence of the transverse baffle on the sound power has been investigated. Based on the obtained formulas, the behaviour of acoustic fields inside a wedge can be predicted.
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Abstract

Noise control is essential in an enclosed machine room where the noise level has to comply with the occupational safety and health act. In order to overcome a pure tone noise with a high peak value that is harmful to human hearing, a traditional reactive muffler has been used. However, the traditional method for designing a reactive muffler has proven to be time-consuming and insufficient. In order to efficiently reduce the peak noise level, interest in shape optimization of a Helmholtz muffler is coming to the forefront. Helmholtz mufflers that deal with a pure tone have been adequately researched. However, the shape optimization of multi-chamber Helmholtz mufflers that deal with a broadband noise hybridized with multiple tones within a constrained space has been mostly ignored. Therefore, this study analyzes the sound transmission loss (STL) and the best optimized design for a hybrid Helmholtz muffler under a space- constrained situation. On the basis of the plane wave theory, the four-pole system matrix used to evaluate the acoustic performance of a multi-tone hybrid Helmholtz muffler is presented. Two numerical cases for eliminating one/two tone noises emitted from a machine room using six kinds of mufflers (muffler A~F) is also introduced. To find the best acoustical performance of a space-constrained muffler, a numerical assessment using a simulated annealing (SA) method is adopted. Before the SA operation can be carried out, the accuracy of the mathematical model has been checked using the experimental data. Eliminating a broadband noise hybridized with a pure tone (130 Hz) in Case I reveals that muffler C composed of a one- chamber Helmholtz Resonator and a one-chamber dissipative element has a noise reduction of 54.9 (dB). Moreover, as indicated in Case II, muffler F, a two-chamber Helmholtz Resonator and a one-chamber dissipative element, has a noise reduction of 69.7 (dB). Obviously, the peak values of the pure tones in Case I and Case II are efficiently reduced after the muffler is added. Consequently, a successful approach in eliminating a broadband noise hybridized with multiple tones using optimally shaped hybrid Helmholtz mufflers and a simulated annealing method within a constrained space is demonstrated.
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