In 1939–1989 it was common for an aspiring writer to make an entry into the literary scene through a literary magazine. This article revisits the problem by distinguishing two categories of literary magazines, those produced for the young from those by the young. The latter were launched through the initiative of young writers seeking a platform of their own, i.e. the impulse for the creation of such periodicals came from the literary community itself. The article also draws on Professor Kazimierz Wyka’s periodization of literature on the basis of a pair of criteria, the historical and the generational (literary groups and generations). They are an important analytical tool in the mapping of generational change in the literary history of Poland in 1945–1989.
Literary periodicals promoting young writers played a major role in the formation of a distinct generational consciousness during the occupation and in the post-war period. They included Sztuka i Naród [Art and the Nation] (1942–1944), Walka [Combat] and Inaczej [Contrarily] (1945), Pokolenie [ The Generation] (1946–1947), Nurt [The Current] (1947), Po prostu [ Plain and Simple] (1949–1955), Wyboje [ Bumps] (1956–1957), Zebra (1957–1958), Orientacja (1965–1971) and Nowy Wyraz [New Expression] (1972–1981). The young writers’ literary magazines were the product of the shifting political environment and generational change.
The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
The issue of maximizing penetration depth with concurrent retaining or enhancement of image resolution constitutes one of the time invariant challenges in ultrasound imaging. Concerns about potential and undesirable side eﬀects set limits on the possibility of overcoming the frequency dependent attenuation eﬀects by increasing peak acoustic amplitudes of the waves probing the tissue. To overcome this limitation a pulse compression technique employing 16 bits Complementary Golay Sequences (CGS) Code was implemented at 4 MHz. In comparison with other, earlier proposed, coded excitation schemes, such as chirp, pseudo-random chirp and Barker codes, the CGS allowed virtually side lobe free operation. Experimental data indicate that the quality — resolution, signal penetration and contrast dynamics — of CGS images is better than the one obtain for standard ultrasonography using short burst excitation.
A systematic approach for analyzing the static and dynamic electromechanical response of electrostatic actuators is presented. The analysis is based on energy methods. An analysis approach for extracting dynamic response parameters of electrostatic actuators, while only considering static states of the system, is presented. This is an efficient method for extracting the dynamic pull-in parameters because it does not require time integration of momentum equations.
This article reflects some trends and challenges in Germany in connection to immigration. The need of educational and scientific discussion and reflection of migration-specific themes are dictated by the contemporary reality requirements of almost all European countries. Change in society, associated primarily with the processes of immigration, affects the processes and systems of goal-countries, especially the education system.
Parliamentary elections has always been arousing extreme emotions in Poland. The 2005 and 2007 elections were widely addressed in the Polish media. Furthermore, the election campaign and the final election results attracted the attention of the British press, which was reflected in a number of articles published in the United Kingdom in 2005 and 2007 respectively. The main reason behind interest that the British press had in the political situation in Poland had to do with large population of Polish emigrants residing in the UK. The article is aimed at presenting the standpoint of one of widely-read English dailies which shapes not only the British foreign policy, but also the British public opinion, namely “The Guardian”. Through presenting the profiles of two main political parties running for the 2005 and the 2007 elections in Poland (i.e. Civic Platform as well as Law and Justice), “The Guardian” did its best to affect the results of the vote. The articles published in the daily not only described the political parties, but were also aimed at creating the image of Poland in Great Britain. Depending on the election results, the image of Poland and Poles was subject to change. “The Guardian”, British daily dealing with political matters, devoted much of its attention to parliamentary election held in Poland in Autumn 2005 and 2007. Before taking a good look at articles published in the newspaper, it is worth presenting the profile of the daily and political preferences expressed by its journalists. Originally “The Manchester Guardian”, “The Guardian” was first published in Manchester in 1821, and since 1961 has been coming out also in London. At the very beginning a weekly, now it is published Monday through Saturday and owned by world-famous Guardian Media Group plc., “The Guardian” boasts of being the first British daily produced entirely in colour. Having in mind the place and moment in history when it was first published, “The Guardian” is said to have liberal-democratic character, in other words to be in favour of the political programme outlined by British Labour Party. As for parliamentary election, since 1945 “The Guardian” has been a committed supporter of Labour Party or Liberal Democrats (an exception was election held in 1951 when the daily backed the candidature of Winston Churchill). Political sympathy expressed toward liberal parties is reflected in articles published by the daily. This was also the case with press coverage of two leading Polish political parties running for election both in 2005 and 2007, namely Law and Justice (PiS) and Civic Platform of the Republic of Poland (PO).
The TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement ( TanDEM-X) mission launched in 2010 is another programme – after the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in 2000 – that uses space-borne radar interferometry to build a global digital surface model. This article presents the accuracy assessment of the TanDEM-X intermediate Digital Elevation Model (IDEM) provided by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) under the project “Accuracy assessment of a Digital Elevation Model based on TanDEM-X data” for the southwestern territory of Poland. The study area included: open terrain, urban terrain and forested terrain. Based on a set of 17,498 reference points acquired by airborne laser scanning, the mean errors of average heights and standard deviations were calculated for areas with a terrain slope below 2 degrees, between 2 and 6 degrees and above 6 degrees. The absolute accuracy of the IDEM data for the analysed area, expressed as a root mean square error (Total RMSE), was 0.77 m.
The aim of this work was to present the numerical simulation results determining the distributions of flow velocity and pressure in the individual channels of a plate heat exchanger. The simulations have been conducted by means of the Finite Volume Method (FVM) of numerical computation using the ANSYS CFX software. The computational model constituted spaces between 10 flat, straight flow type plates of the heat exchanger. The obtained results of numerical simulations confirm the presence of inhomogeneous flow conditions in the neighbouring channels between the plates. The computations enabled to point out the regions on the plates, in which insufficient flow can result in problems with their cleaning. The results of this work constitute the first part of a research leading to an assessment of cleaning conditions in plate heat exchangers.
The goal of the proposed computational model was to evaluate the dynamical properties of air gauges in order to exploit them in such industrial applications as in-process control, form deviation measurement, dynamical measurement. The model is based on Reynolds equations complemented by the k-ε turbulence model. The boundary conditions were set in different areas (axis of the chamber, side surfaces, inlet pipeline and outlet cross-section) as Dirichlet's and Neumann's ones. The TDMA method was applied and the efficiency of the calculations was increased due to the "line-by-line" procedure. The proposed model proved to be accurate and useful for non-stationary two-dimensional flow through the air gauge measuring chamber.
A dynamic economy contributes to the increase in the number of workers exposed to mechanical vibration caused by machines and transport equipment. As the means of transport are insufficiently recognised sources of mechanical vibrations, this article presents the results of whole-body and hand-arm vibration tests of 30 most common means of in-house transport. An analysis of vibration signals recorded at each workstation according to PN-EN 14253 and PN-EN ISO 5349 made it possible to determine the weighted values of components of directional vibration acceleration and the values of daily vibration exposure A(8). In order to assess exposure to whole-body and hand-arm vibration at the tested workstations of in-house transport, indices of vibration hazard related to admissible values, the total evaluation index (developed in a previous study at CIOP-PIB) and a three-degrees scale for assessing exposure to vibrations were used. The assessment showed that the workstations were a major hazard. Vibration hazards at all those workstations were classified as either medium or high.
Periodic adsorption in a perfect mixing tank of a limited volume was considered. It was assumed that the adsorption rate is limited by diffusion resistance in a pellet. The approximate model of diffusion kinetics based on a continued fraction approximation was compared with the exact analytical solution. For the approximate model an algorithm was developed to determine a temporal variation of the adsorbate concentration in the pellet. The comparison was made for different values of the adsorbent load factor. In the numerical tests different shapes of pellets were considered. Both the numerical tests as well as our own experimental results showed that the approximate model provides results that are in good agreement with the exact solution. In the experimental part of this work adsorption of p-nitrophenol and acetic acid from aqueous solutions on cylindrical pellets of activated carbon was conducted.
In the article, the authors analyze and discuss several models used to the calculation of air gauge characteristics. The model based on the actual mass flow (which is smaller than the theoretical one) was proposed, too. Calculations have been performed with a dedicated software with the second critical parameters included. The air gauge static characteristics calculated with 6 different models were compared with the experimental data. It appeared that the second critical parameters model (SCP) provided the characteristics close to the experimental ones, with an error of ca. 3% within the air gauge measuring range.
Quantitative resistance in barley to four Fusarium head blight (FHB) species was investigated in vitro. Nine components involved in three assays (detached leaf, modified Petridish and seedling tests) were compared on two widely grown Syrian barley cultivars: Arabi Aswad (AS) and Arabi Abiad (AB). On AB, inoculation with FHB species resulted in a significantly shorter latent period and larger lesion length of detached leaf inoculation, more standardized area under disease progress curve (AUDPCstandard) of modified Petridish inoculation and a higher percentage of infected seedlings of pin-point inoculation than on AS. The latent period of AB was 14.89% less than AS, lesion length of AS was 6.01% less than AB, AUDPCstandard of AS was 17.07% less than AB and the percentage of infected seedlings of AS was 4.87% less than AB. Inoculation with FHB species resulted in no significant differences in the other five components measured: incubation period of detached leaf inoculation, germination rate reduction and coleoptile length reduction of modified Petridish inoculation, percentage of infected seedlings of foliar-spraying inoculation and lesion length of clip-dipping inoculation. AS was more resistant to in vitro FHB infection than AB. The latent period and AUDPCstandard recorded the highest values compared with the lowest values for lesion length and percentage of infected seedlings. It seems that measurement of the latent period and AUDPCstandard may be useful in identifying barley cultivars which are highly susceptible or resistant to FHB at early stages.
A novel in-phase disposition (IPD) SPWM pulse allocation strategy applied to a cascaded H-bridge (CHB) converter is presented in this paper. The reason causing the power of the CHB converter imbalance is analyzed according to the traditional structure, the conception of power imbalance degree is introduced and the principle of the novel in-phase disposition SPWM allocation strategy is deduced in detail. The new pulse allocation scheme can ensure the power balance in 3/4 cycles through interchanging the PWM pulse sequence of the different CHB cell, meanwhile it makes the full advantage of the IPD control strategy, lower the total harmonic distortion (THD) of line voltage compared to a carrier phase shifted (CPS) control strategy, which is verified by theoretical derivation. A seven-level cascaded inverter composed by three H-bridge cells is taken as the exam- ple. The simulation and experiment is performed. The results indicate the validity of the analysis and verify the effectiveness of the proposed SPWM allocation strategy.
The aim of the article is an attempt to reconstruct a description of the image of Arab World on the basis of selected (yet representative) writings from the second half of the 18th century. In that period, due to the trending Enlightenment orientalism understood as a fascination with the Orient and references made to it in the culture, the Arab world appeared among Polish representatives of the Age of Reason. These trends were expressed in art, customs, literature and – in the form of various concepts and images – in social consciousness. These images differed between each other both in terms of content and form. Some of them aimed to depict the Arab world objectively and extensively, whereas the other, on the contrary, were merely delineations focused on particular elements of the Arab world, depicting only one or a few aspects. Some of them, such as the image of Arabia Felix or utopian reminiscences refer to the tradition and update it. Some of them were created for the time being. Nevertheless, each of them reflects the topics, problems and questions which concerned the minds in Enlightenment Poland. Moreover, relatively high correlation between European archetypes and the image of the Arab world which occurs in the writings of the Polish Enlightenment confirms that Poland belongs to the Old Continent cultural group, which was crucial for the promoters of Polish Enlightenment.
This article presents changes in the operating parameters of a combined gas-steam cycle with a CO2 capture installation and flue gas recirculation. Parametric equations are solved in a purpose-built mathematical model of the system using the Ebsilon Professional code. Recirculated flue gases from the heat recovery boiler outlet, after being cooled and dried, are fed together with primary air into the mixer and then into the gas turbine compressor. This leads to an increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the flue gases fed into the CO2 capture installation from 7.12 to 15.7%. As a consequence, there is a reduction in the demand for heat in the form of steam extracted from the turbine for the amine solution regeneration in the CO2 capture reactor. In addition, the flue gas recirculation involves a rise in the flue gas temperature (by 18 K) at the heat recovery boiler inlet and makes it possible to produce more steam. These changes contribute to an increase in net electricity generation efficiency by 1%. The proposed model and the obtained results of numerical simulations are useful in the analysis of combined gas-steam cycles integrated with carbon dioxide separation from flue gases.
The present paper describes results of experimental investigations of pressure drop during the condensation of R134a, R404a and R407C refrigerants in pipe minichannels with internal diameter 0.31-3.30 mm. The results concern investigations of the mean and local pressure drop in single minichannels. The results of experimental investigations were compared with the calculations according to the correlations proposed by other authors. A pressure drop during the condensation of refrigerants is described in a satisfactory manner with Friedel and Garimella correlations. On the basis of the experimental investigations, the authors proposed their own correlation for calculation of local pressure drop during condensation in single minichannels.
We report on the photoresponse of mid-wavelength infrared radiation (MWIR) type-II superlattices (T2SLs) InAs/InAsSb high operating temperature (HOT) photoresistor grown on GaAs substrate. The device consists of a 200 periods of active layer grown on GaSb buffer layer. The photoresistor reached a 50% cut-off wavelength of 5 µm and 6 µm at 200 K and 300 K respectively. The time constant of 30 ns is observed at 200 K under 1 V bias. This is the first observation of the photoresponse in MWIR T2SLs InAs/InAsSb above 200 K.
The scope of this work focuses on the aspects of quality and safety assurance of the iron cast manufacturing processes. Special attention was given to the processes of quality control and after-machining of iron casts manufactured on automatic foundry lines. Due to low level of automation and huge work intensity at this stage of the process, a model area was established which underwent reorganization in accordance with the assumptions of the World Class Manufacturing (WCM). An analysis of work intensity was carried out and the costs were divided in order to identify operations with no value added, particularly at individual manufacturing departments. Also an analysis of ergonomics at work stations was carried out to eliminate activities that are uncomfortable and dangerous to the workers' health. Several solutions were proposed in terms of rationalization of work organization at iron cast after-machining work stations. The proposed solutions were assessed with the use of multi-criteria assessment tools and then the best variant was selected based on the assumed optimization criteria. The summary of the obtained results reflects benefits from implementation of the proposed solutions.
In this text is taken the issue of doctoral studies as the highest level of formal education as well as the first stage of their research careers. Use the category of “critical mass” I put questions about the PhD program in the discipline of Pedagogy. One of the context of analysis of “critical mass” is the number of the pedagogy students I and II degree and the social contexts of education as well as employability qualified pedagogs. Then, I ask, who and why needs a PhD in pedagogy. At the end I discuss the European trends in doctoral education with comparing it to the dominance the administrative and bureaucratic approach to doctoral studies in Poland.
This is the article about political issues in education. The aim of the text is to present the relations between politics and education. I try to find answer to question: what is the essence of politics of education? I claim that education is inherently political. Every dimension and form of educational practice are politically contested spaces. I try to show that politics in education is a very important part of democracy in education. Democracy is impossible without politics and politics is impossible without democracy. So, I focus on describing possible political areas in education. The paper presents results of these relations. I also try to convince the reader that it is possible (it is necessary) to create important, interesting thinking about education from political point of view.
Because of excellent properties, similar to natural bone minerals, and variety of possible biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a valuable compound among the calcium phosphate salts. A number of synthesis routes for producing HAp powders have been reported. Despite this fact, it is important to develop new methods providing precise control over the reaction and having potential to scale-up. The main motivation for the current paper is a view of continuous synthesis methods toward medical application of produced hydroxyapatite, especially in the form of nanoparticles.
The repatriation of Poles after World War II, despite its flaws, which caused its implementation not possible until 1949, at that period was possible only with the support of the Soviet Union. The international situation and the political situation in China in late forties made USSR only possible link between polish government and Manchuria, and a potential ally, which had measures to help in its organization. It was a pragmatic decision based on the possibilities and conditions. The central soviet authorities had an established communication with his consulate, adequate infrastructure for the transit of returnees and already developed basis of Polish-Soviet agreement on its terms. Only the change of the political situation after the establishment of Peoples Republic of China has allowed the Polish authorities to avoid additional costs and delays, which ware considerable disadvantages of the repatriation in cooperation with the Soviet Union.
Ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, is a serious disease of common and narrow-leaved ash in Europe. The resistance of individual trees seems to be important for the maintenance of ash in European forests. In this in situ wound inoculation study, the susceptibility and differences in resistance to H. fraxineus between Fraxinus excelsior and F. angustifolia clones were assessed. Neither of the tested clones revealed total resistance to ash dieback; variety between the tested clones was observed. Differences in necroses lengths were significant between clones and between two ash species. Longer necroses were formed in F. angustifolia than in F. excelsior. Some clones exhibiting some resistance to the pathogen were identified.