This paper focuses on mechanical properties of self hardening moulding sands with furfuryl and alkyd binders. Elasticity as a new parameter of moulding sands is investigated. With the use of presented testing equipment, it is possible to determine force kinetics and deformation of moulding sand in real time. The need for this kind of study comes from the modern casting industry. New foundries can be characterized with high intensity of production which is correlated with high level of mechanization and automatization of foundry processes. The increasingly common use of manipulators in production of moulds and cores can lead to generation of new types of flaws, caused by breakage in moulds and cores which could occur during mould assembly. Hence it is required that moulds and cores have high resistance to those kinds of factors, attributing it with the phenomenon of elasticity. The article describes the theoretical basis of this property, presents methods of measuring and continues earlier research.
This paper presents a new perspective on the issue of reclamation of moulding and core sands. Taking as a premise that the reclamation process must remain on the surface of grains some not separated binding materials rests, it should be chosen the proper moulding sand’s composition that will be least harmful for the reclaim quality. There are two different moulding and core sands taken into examinations. The researches prove that a small correction of their compositions (hardener type) improves the quality of the received reclaims. Carried out in this article studies have shown that such an approach to the problem of reclamation of the moulding and core sands is needed and reasonable.
The constant growth of foundry modernization, mechanization and automation is followed with growing requirements for the quality and parameters of both moulding and core sands. Due to this changes it is necessary to widen the requirements for the parameters used for their quality evaluation by widening the testing of the moulding and core sands with the measurement of their resistance to mechanical deformation (further called elasticity). Following article covers measurements of this parameter in chosen moulding and core sands with different types of binders. It focuses on the differences in elasticity, bending strength and type of bond destruction (adhesive/cohesive) between different mixtures, and its connection to the applied bonding agent. Moulding and cores sands on which the most focus is placed on are primarily the self-hardening moulding sands with organic and inorganic binders, belonging to the group of universal applications (used as both moulding and core sands) and mixtures used in cold-box technology.
The paper presents the results of the crystallization process of silumin by the TDA thermographic method and the results of the cast microstructure obtained in the sampler TDA-10, that was cooling down in ambient air. The study was conducted for silumin AlSi11 unmodified. The work demonstrated that the use of thermal imaging camera allows for the measurement and recording the solidification process of silumin. Thermal curve was registered with the infrared camera and derivative curve that was calculated on the base of thermal curve have both a very similar shape to adequate them TDA curves obtained from measurements using a thermocouple. Test results by TDA thermographic method enable quantitative analysis of the kinetics of the cooling and solidification process of neareutectic silumin.
The last decade has seen growing interest in professional public about applications of porous metallic materials. Porous metals represent a new type of materials with low densities, large specific surface, and novel physical and mechanical properties, characterized by low density and large specific surface. They are very suitable for specific applications due to good combination of physical and mechanical properties such as high specific strength and high energy absorption capability. Since the discovery of metal foams have been developed many methods and techniques of production in liquid, solid and gas phases. Condition for the use of metal foams - advanced materials with unique usability features, are inexpensive ways to manage their production. Mastering of production of metallic foams with defined structure and properties using gravity casting into sand or metallic foundry moulds will contribute to an expansion of the assortment produced in foundries by completely new type of material, which has unique service properties thanks to its structure, and which fulfils the current demanding ecological requirements. The aim of research conducted at the department of metallurgy and foundry of VSB-Technical University Ostrava is to verify the possibilities of production of metallic foams by conventional foundry processes, to study the process conditions and physical and mechanical properties of metal foam produced. Two procedures are used to create porous metal structures: Infiltration of liquid metal into the mold cavity filled with precursors or preforms and two stage investment casting.
One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass), which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting nonferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a fundamental and effective way to manage waste on site at the foundry, in accordance with the Environmental Guidelines. Therefore, studies of reclamation of waste moulding and core sands with new types of inorganic binders (developed within the framework of the project) were carried out. These studies allowed to determine the degree of recovery of useful, material, what the reclaimed sand is, and the degree of its use in the production process. The article presents these results of investigation. They are a part of broader research programme executed under the project POIG.01.01.02-00- 015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".
The work presents the results of examinations concerning the influence of various amounts of home scrap additions on the porosity of castings made of MgAl9Zn1 alloy. The fraction of home scrap in the metal charge ranged from 0 to 100%. Castings were pressure cast by means of the hot-chamber pressure die casting machine under the industrial conditions in one of the domestic foundries. Additionally, for the purpose of comparison, the porosity of specimens cut out directly of the MgAl9Zn1 ingot alloy was also determined. The examinations consisted in the qualitative assessment of porosity by means of the optical microscopy and its quantitative determination by the method of weighting specimens in air and in water. It was found during the examination that the porosity of castings decreases with an increase in the home scrap fraction in the metal charge. The qualitative examinations confirmed the beneficial influence of the increased home scrap fraction on the porosity of castings. It was concluded that the reusing of home scrap in a foundry can be a good way of reduction of costs related to the production of pressure castings.
The work deals with technology Patternless process that combines 3 manufacturing process mold by using rapid prototyping technology, conventional sand formation and 3D milling. It's unconventional technology that has been developed to produce large-sized and heavyduty castings weighing up to several tons. It is used mainly in prototype and small batch production, because eliminating production of models. The work deals with the production of blocks for making molds of gypsum and gypsum drying process technology Thermomold. Into blocks, where were made cavities by milling were casted test castings from AlSi10MgMn alloy by gravity casting. At machining of the mold cavity was varied feed rate of tool of cemented carbide. Evaluated was the surface roughness of test castings, that was to 5 micrometers with feed from 900 to 1300 mm/min. The dimensional accuracy of castings was high at feed rate of 1000 and 1500 mm/min did not exceed 0.025 mm.
The work presents the results of examinations concerning the influence of various amounts of home scrap additions on the properties of castings made of MgAl9Zn1 alloy. The fraction of home scrap in the metal charge ranged from 0 to 100%. Castings were pressure cast by means of the hot-chamber pressure die casting machine under the industrial conditions in one of the domestic foundries. The examinations consisted in the determination of the following properties: tensile strength Rm, yield strength Rp0.2, and the unit elongation A5, all being measured during the static tensile test. Also, the hardness measurements were taken by the Brinell method. It was found that the mechanical properties (mainly the strength properties) are being improved up to the home scrap fraction of 50%. Their values were increased by about 30% over this range. Further rise in the home scrap content, however, brought a definite decrease in these properties. The unit elongation A5 exhibited continual decrease with an increase in the home scrap fraction in the metal charge. A large growth of hardness was noticed for the home scrap fraction increasing up to the value of 50%. Further increasing the home scrap percentage, however, did not result in a significant rise of the hardness value any more.
The dimensional accuracy of a final casting of Inconel 738 LC alloy is affected by many aspects. One of them is the choice of method and time of cooling the wax model for precision investment casting. The main objective of this work was to study the initial deformation of the complex shape of a rotor blades casting. Various approaches have been tested for cooling a wax pattern. When wax models are air cooled and without clamping in the jig for cooling, deviations from the ideal shape of the casting are very noticeable (up to 8 mm) and most are in extreme positions of the model. When the blade is cooled in the fixing jig in a water environment, the resulting deviations compared to those of air cooling are significantly larger, sometimes up to 10 mm. This itself does not mean that the final shape of the casting is dimensionally more accurate with the usage of wax models, which have smaller deviations from the ideal position. Another deformation occurs when the shell mould is produced around the wax pattern and further deformations emerge while cooling the blade casting. This paper demonstrates the first steps in describing the complex process of deformations occurring in Inconel alloy blades produced with investment casting technology by comparing results of thermal imagery, simulations in foundry simulation software ProCAST 2010, and measurements from a CNC scanning system using a Carl Zeiss MC 850. Conclusions are so far not groundbreaking, but it seems that deformations of the wax pattern and deformations of the castings do in some cases cancel each other by having opposite directions. Describing the whole process of deformations will help increase the precision of blade castings so that the models at the beginning and the blades in the end are the same.
The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid) sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.
Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron) are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?” This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition). Ratio of active bentonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.
The aim of research was creation of a furnace for aluminum alloys smelting “in a liquid bath” in order to reduce metal loss. In the paper, the author demonstrates the results of research on smelting of aluminum alloys in a shaft-reverberatory furnace designed by the author. It has been shown that smelting aluminum alloy in a liquid bath was able to significantly reduce aluminum loss and that shaft-reverberatory design provided high efficiency and productivity along with lower energy costs. Ensuring continuous operation of the liquid bath and superheating chamber, which tapped alloy with the required texture, was achieved by means of the optimal design of partition between them. The optimum section of the connecting channels between the liquid bath of smelting and the superheating chamber has been theoretically substantiated and experimentally confirmed. The author proposed a workable shaft-reverberatory furnace for aluminum alloys smelting, providing solid charge melting in a liquid bath.
The work is a continuation of research concerning the influence of intensive cooling of permanent mold in order to increase the casting efficiency of aluminium alloys using the multipoint water mist cooling system. The paper presents results of investigation of crystallization process and microstructure of multicomponent synthetic hypereutectic alloy AlSi20CuNiCoMg. The study was conducted for unmodified silumin on the research station allowing the cooling of the special permanent sampler using a program of computer control. Furthermore, the study used a thermal imaging camera to analyze the solidification process of multicomponent alloy. The study demonstrated that the use of mold cooled with water mist stream allows in wide range to form the microstructure of hypereutectic multicomponent silumin. It leads to higher homogeneity of microstructure and refinement of crystallizing phases of casting.
The paper analyses specific defects of castings produced by semi-solid casting process, especially rheocasting method SEED, which uses mechanical swirling for reaching proper structure in semisolid state with high content of solid fraction. Heat treated alloy AlSi7Mg0.3 was applied for producing an Engine Bracket casting part. For observing structure, metallographic observation by light and SEM microscopy was used. To analyse the process, software ProCAST was used to simulate the movements in shot chamber and filling of the mold.
The essence of ablation casting technology consists in pouring castings in single-use moulds made from the mixture of sand and a watersoluble binder. After pouring the mould with liquid metal, while the casting is still solidifying, the mould destruction (washing out, erosion) takes place using a stream of cooling medium, which in this case is water. This paper focuses on the selection of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate for moulds used in the ablation casting. The research is based on the use of Cordis binder produced by the Hüttenes-Albertus Company. It is a new-generation inorganic binder based on hydrated sodium silicate. Its hardening takes place under the effect of high temperature. As part of the research, loose moulding mixtures based on the silica sand with different content of Cordis binder and special Anorgit additive were prepared. The reference material was sand mixture without the additive. The review of literature data and the results of own studies have shown that moulding sand with hydrated sodium silicate hardened by dehydration is characterized by sufficient strength properties to be used in the ablation casting process. Additionally, at the Foundry Research Institute in Krakow, preliminary semi-industrial tests were carried out on the use of Cordis sand technology in the manufacture of moulds for ablation casting. The possibility to use these sand mixtures has been confirmed in terms of both casting surface quality and sand reclamation.
In the foundry industry, many harmful compounds can be found, which as a result of gradual but long-term exposure to employees bring negative results. One of such compounds is phenol (aromatic organic compound), which its vapours are corrosive to the eyes, the skin, and the respiratory tract. Exposition to this compound also may cause harmful effects on the central nervous system and heart, resulting in dysrhythmia, seizures, and coma. Phenol is a component of many foundry resins, especially used in shell moulds in the form of resincoated sands. In order to identify it, the pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (Py-GC/MS) was used. The tests were carried out in conditions close to real (shell mould process – temperature 300°C). During the measurement, attention was focused on the appropriate selection of chromatographic analysis conditions in order to best separate the compounds, as it is difficult to separate the phenol and its derivatives. The identification of compounds was based on own standards.
The constantly developing and the broadly understood automation of production processes in foundry industry, creates both new working conditions - better working standards, faster and more accurate production - and new demands for previously used materials as well as opportunities to generate new foundry defects. Those high requirements create the need to develop further the existing elements of the casting production process. This work focuses on mechanical and thermal deformation of moulding sands prepared in hot-box technology. Moulding sands hardened in different time periods were tested immediately after hardening and after cooling. The obtained results showed that hardening time period in the range 30-120 sec does not influence the mechanical deformation of tested moulding sands significantly. Hot distortion tests proved that moulding sands prepared in hot-box technology can be characterized with stable thermal deformation up to the temperature of circa 320oC.
The work is a continuation of research concerning the influence of intensive cooling of permanent mold in order to increase the casting efficiency of aluminium alloys using the multipoint water mist cooling system. The paper presents results of investigation of crystallization process and microstructure of synthetic hypereutectic alloys: AlSi15 and AlSi19. Casts were made in permanent mold cooled with water mist stream. The study was conducted for unmodified silumins on the research station allowing the cooling of the special permanent probe using a program of computer control. Furthermore the study used a thermal imaging camera to analyze the solidification process of hypereutectic silumins. The study demonstrated that the use of mold cooled with water mist stream allows in wide range the formation of the microstructure of hypereutectic silumins. It leads to higher homogeneity of microstructure and refinement of crystallizing phases and also it increases subsequently the mechanical properties of casting.
Widely used in the power and mining industry, cast Hadfield steel is resistant to wear, but only when operating under impact loads. Components made from this alloy exposed to the effect of abrasion under load-free conditions are known to suffer rapid and premature wear. To increase the abrasion resistance of cast high-manganese steel under the conditions where no dynamic loads are operating, primary titanium carbides are formed in the process of cast steel melting, to obtain in the alloy after solidification and heat treatment, the microstructure composed of very hard primary carbides uniformly distributed in the austenitic matrix of a hardness superior to the hardness of common cast Hadfield steel. Hard titanium carbides ultimately improve the wear resistance of components operating under shear conditions. The measured microhardness of the as-cast matrix in samples tested was observed to increase with the increasing content of titanium and was 380 HV0.02 for the content of 0.4%, 410 HV0.02 for the content of 1.5% and 510 HV0.02 for the content of 2 and 2.5%. After solution heat treatment, the microhardness of the matrix was 460÷480 HV0.02 for melts T2, T3 and T6, and 580 HV0.02 for melt T4, and was higher than the values obtained in common cast Hadfield steel (370 HV0.02 in as-cast state and 340÷370 HV0.02 after solution heat treatment). The measured microhardness of alloyed cementite was 1030÷1270 HV0.02; the microhardness of carbides reached even 2650÷4000 HV0.02.
The work presents results of investigations concerning the production of cast iron containing about 5-6% aluminium, with the ferritic matrix in the as-cast state and nodular or vermicular graphite precipitates. The examined cast iron came from six melts produced under the laboratory conditions. It contained aluminium in the amount of 5.15% to 6.02% (carbon in the amount of 2.41% to 2.87%, silicon in the amount of 4.50% to 5.30%, and manganese in the amount of 0.12% to 0.14%). After its treatment with cerium mixture and graphitization with ferrosilicon (75% Si), only nodular and vermicular graphite precipitates were achieved in the examined cast iron. Moreover, it is possible to achieve the alloy of pure ferritic matrix, even after the spheroidizing treatment, when both the aluminium and the silicon occur in cast iron in amounts of about 5.2÷5.3%.
Growing emission requirements are forcing the foundry industry to seek new, more environmentally friendly solutions. One of the solutions may be the technologies of preparing moulding and core sands using organic biodegradable materials as binders. However, not only environmental requirements grow but also those related to the technological properties of moulding sand. Advancing automation and mechanization of the foundry industry brings new challenges related to the moulding sands. Low elasticity may cause defects during assembly of cores or moulds by the manipulators. The paper presents the study of flexibility in the room temperature according to new method and resistance to thermal deformation of selfhardening moulding sands with furfuryl resin, containing biodegradable material PCL. The task of the new additive is to reduce the moulding sands harmfulness to the environment and increase its flexibility in the room temperature. The impact of the additive and the effect of the amount of binder on the properties of mentioned moulding sands were analysed. Studies have shown that the use of 5% of PCL does not change the nature of the thermal deformation curve, improves the bending strength of tested moulding mixtures and increases their flexibility at room temperature.
This article presents the results of studies in the hypoeutectic silumin destined for pressure die casting with the simultaneous addition of chromium and tungsten. The study involved the derivative and thermal analysis of the crystallization process, metallographic analysis and mechanical properties testing. Silumin 226 grade was destined for studies. It is a typical silumin to pressure die casting. AlCr15 and AlW8 preliminary alloys were added to silumin. Its quantity allowed to obtain 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4% of Cr and W in the tested alloy. Studies of the crystallization process as well as the microstructure of the silumin poured into DTA sampler allowed to state the presence of additional phase containing 0.2% or more Cr and W. It has not occurred in silumin without the addition of above mentioned elements. It is probably the intermetallic phase containing Cr and W. DTA studies have shown this phase crystallizes at a higher temperature range than α (Al) solid solution. In the microstructure of each pressure die casting containing Cr and W the new phases formed. Mechanical properties tests have shown Cr and W additives in silumin in an appropriate amount may increase its tensile strength Rm (about 11%), the yield strength Rp0.2 (about 21%) and to a small extent elongation A.
The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica. The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined with effective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline organic binder, while backing sand was the sand with an inorganic geopolymer binder. A simplified method of sand reclamation was applied with possible reuse of the reclaim as an addition to the backing sand. The cast iron spheroidising treatment and inoculation were selected taking into account the specific conditions of Hardtop Foundry. A pilot batch of castings was made, testing the gating and feeding systems and using exothermic sleeves on risers. The study confirmed the validity of the adopted concept of making ductile iron castings in layer moulds, while maintaining the content of sand with an organic binder at a level of maximum 15%.
More and more foundry plants applying moulding sands with water-glass or its substitutes for obtaining the high-quality casting surface at the smallest costs, consider the possibility of implementing two-layer moulds, in which e.g. the facing sand is a sand with an organic binder (no-bake type) and the backing sand is a sand with inorganic binder. Both kinds of sands must have the same chemical reaction. The most often applied system is the moulding sand on the water-glass or geopolymer bases – as the backing sand and the moulding sand from the group of self-hardening sands with a resol resin – as the facing sand. Investigations were performed for the system: moulding sand with inorganic GEOPOL binder or moulding sand with water glass (as a backing sand) and moulding sand, no-bake type, with a resol resin originated from various producers: Rezolit AM, Estrofen, Avenol NB 700 (as a facing sand). The LUZ apparatus, produced by Multiserw Morek, was adapted for investigations. A special partition with cuts was mounted in the attachment for making test specimens for measuring the tensile strength. This partition allowed a simultaneous compaction of two kinds of moulding sands. After 24 hours of hardening the highest values were obtained for the system: Geopol binder - Avenol resin.