The investigation results of the influence of the reclaim additions on the properties of moulding sands with the GEOPOL geopolymer binder developed by the SAND TEAM Company were presented. Two brands of hardeners were applied in the tested compositions, the first one was developed by the SAND TEAM Company, marked SA72 and the new hardener offered by the KRATOS Company, marked KR72. The main purpose of investigations was to determine the influence of reclaim fractions and the applied hardener on the basic moulding sands properties, such as: bending and tensile strength, permeability and grindability. The unfavourable influence of the reclaim additions into moulding sands on the tested properties as well as an increased hardening rate, were found. Moulding sands, in which the hardener KR72 of the KRATOS Company was used, were less sensitive to the reclaim additions.
This paper deals with the complete technology of inorganic geopolymer binder system GEOPOL® which is a result of long term research and development. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical and practical overview of the GEOPOL® binder system and introduce possible ways of moulds and cores production in foundries. GEOPOL® is a unique inorganic binder system, which is needed and welcomed in terms of the environment, the work environment, and the sustainable resources. The GEOPOL® technology is currently used in the foundries for three basic production processes/technologies: (1) for self-hardening moulding mixtures, (2) sand mixtures hardened by gaseous carbon dioxide and (3) the hot box technology with hot air hardening. The GEOPOL® technology not only solves the binder system and the ways of hardening, but also deals with the entire foundry production process. Low emissions produced during mixing of sand, moulding, handling, and pouring bring a relatively significant improvement of work conditions in foundries (no VOCs). A high percentage of the reclaim sand can be used again for the preparation of the moulding mixture.
The results of investigations of moulding sands with an inorganic binder called GEOPOL, developed by the SAND TEAM Company are presented in the paper. Hardeners of various hardening rates are used for moulding sands with this binder. The main aim of investigations was determination of the influence of the hardening rate of moulding sands with the GEOPOL binder on technological properties of these sands (bending strength, tensile strength, permeability and grindability). In addition, the final strength of moulding sands of the selected compositions was determined by two methods: by splitting strength and shear strength measurements. No essential influence of the hardening rate on such parameters as: permeability, grindability and final strength was found. However, the sand in which the slowest hardener (SA 72) were used, after 1 hour of holding, had the tensile and bending strength practically zero. Thus, the time needed for taking to pieces the mould made of such moulding sand will be 1.5 - 2 hours.
The use of environmentally friendly inorganic binders and new technologies for cores production is widely discussed topic in recent years. This paper contains information about new hot curing process for core making with alumina-silicate based inorganic binders – geopolymers. Main differences between hot cured geopolymers and hot cured alkali silicate based inorganic binders are discussed. The main objective of this research paper was to investigate basic technological properties of geopolymer binder system such as strength, compaction, storage ability and knock-out properties. For this purpose, three mixtures with different powder additives were prepared and tested in laboratory conditions using specific methods. Strength properties evaluation showed sufficient levels as well as knock-out properties measurement, even with additives B and C originally designed for the use with alkali silicate based two component binder systems. Additives B and C were considered compatible with geopolymer binders after casting production trial results. Storage ability of geopolymers seems to be more sensitive than of alkali silicate based binders in the same tested conditions. Mixtures with geopolymer binder showed 20% more decrease of strength compared to alkali silicate binders after 24 hours in conditions of 25 °C and 65 %RH.
The paper presents the results of an investigation of the thermal deformation of moulding sands with an inorganic (geopolymer) binder with a relaxation additive, whose main task is to reduce the final (residual) strength and improves knocking-out properties of moulding sand. The moulding sand without a relaxation additive was the reference point. The research was carried out using the hot-distortion method (DMA apparatus from Multiserw-Morek). The results were combined with linear deformation studies with determination of the linear expansion factor (Netzsch DIL 402C dilatometer). The study showed that the introduction of relaxation additive has a positive effect on the thermal stability of moulding sand by limiting the measured deformation value, in relation to the moulding sand without additive. In addition, a relaxation additive slightly changes the course of the dilatometric curve. Change in the linear dimension of the moulding sand sample with the relaxation additive differs by only 0.05%, in comparison to the moulding sand without additive.
The results of investigations of the influence of the matrix grain sizes on properties of cores made by the blowing method are presented in the hereby paper. Five kinds of matrices, differing in grain size compositions, determined by the laser diffraction method in the Analysette 22NanoTec device, were applied in investigations. Individual kinds of matrices were used for making core sands in the Cordis technology. From these sands the shaped elements, for determining the apparent density of compacted sands and their bending strength, were made by the blowing method. The shaped elements (cores) were made at shooting pressures being 3, 4 and 5 atn. The bending strength of samples were determined directly after their preparation and after the storing time of 1 hour.
The essence of ablation casting technology consists in pouring castings in single-use moulds made from the mixture of sand and a watersoluble binder. After pouring the mould with liquid metal, while the casting is still solidifying, the mould destruction (washing out, erosion) takes place using a stream of cooling medium, which in this case is water. This paper focuses on the selection of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate for moulds used in the ablation casting. The research is based on the use of Cordis binder produced by the Hüttenes-Albertus Company. It is a new-generation inorganic binder based on hydrated sodium silicate. Its hardening takes place under the effect of high temperature. As part of the research, loose moulding mixtures based on the silica sand with different content of Cordis binder and special Anorgit additive were prepared. The reference material was sand mixture without the additive. The review of literature data and the results of own studies have shown that moulding sand with hydrated sodium silicate hardened by dehydration is characterized by sufficient strength properties to be used in the ablation casting process. Additionally, at the Foundry Research Institute in Krakow, preliminary semi-industrial tests were carried out on the use of Cordis sand technology in the manufacture of moulds for ablation casting. The possibility to use these sand mixtures has been confirmed in terms of both casting surface quality and sand reclamation.