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Praca dotyczy wybranej problematyki z zakresu zabytków nieruchomych w dokumentach planistycznych gmin: Bielice, Gryfino, Kołbaskowo, Stare Czarnowo i Widuchowa. Postępowanie polegało na porównaniu treści z zakresu dziedzictwa i krajobrazu kulturowego zawartych w: studiach uwarunkowań i kierunków zagospodarowania przestrzennego gmin, rejestrze Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa i Planie Zagospodarowania Przestrzennego Województwa Zachodniopomorskiego. Pozwoliło to na wykazanie niespójności w aspekcie dziedzictwa kulturowego w dokumentach planistycznych oraz na wskazanie dobrych praktyk w procesie opieki nad materialnym dziedzictwem kulturowym.
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The hydronym Szywra refers to the small river in the Warta basin flowing in the central part of Greater Poland. Although its name remained unclear for most of the researchers, it was believed to be of Pre-Slavic or Balto-Slavic origin. The paper reveals that these hypotheses were based on the wrong interpretation of the source material, and provides a new etymology for the name Szywra. Based on the critical analysis of all of the reachable records of names referring to the river Szywra, it has been proven that its Polish name is an adaptation of the former German name Schieferbach. Such a process was possible due to the long-term bilingual situation in the region of Greater Poland.
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Słowa kluczowe rabbit RHDV2 Poland

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In this paper we present the first cases of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2 – GI.2) in Poland. The virus was detected in liver samples of RHD-suspected rabbits from Lodzkie and west Pomeranian voivodeships. In both cases, the typical clinical symptoms of the disease were observed despite the fact that the rabbits were previously vaccinated against RHD. In order to extend the analysis of the RHDV2 strain infecting the rabbits, the entire VP60 and NSP genes were amplified and sequenced. The results of rRT-PCR assay have shown that tested RHDV samples were positive for the presence of RHDV2. In the phylogenetic analysis of vp60gene the first Polish RHDV isolates (RED 2016 and VMS 2017) clustered together with the reference RHDV2, meaning they represent new evolutionary RHDV linkeages. The first Polish RHDV2 isolates showed about 97% nucleotide sequence identity with the reference RHDV2 strains and approximately 18% difference from classic RHDV and RHDVa variants.
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Spatial and time diversity of housing construction in Poland. Residential housing construction, as one of the most important elements of spatial development, a factor decisive for living conditions of residents, is the object of interest not only of architects, planners or local and state authorities, but increasingly also of geographers, who mainly analyze these issues in a spatial context. The article analyzes the development of construction in post-war Poland in three periods: real socialism, the transformation period and the last decade. The subject of the analysis is the number of completed dwellings/flats in total, by location (city, village) and by investors (housing cooperatives, developers, private constructors and others).
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Artykuł traktuje o kierunkach działalności Społeczno-Obywatelskiej Ligi Kobiet, ukazywanych na łamach dwóch czasopism kierowanych do Polek, to jest „Kobiety Dzisiejszej” i „Kobiety”. Periodyki te wychodziły w początkach działalności LK (1946–1949). Organizacja poprzez prezentowane treści ukazać chciała swoją „użyteczność”, przydatność w rozwiązywaniu codziennych spraw kobiet oraz ich różnorodnych problemów życia prywatnego i zawodowego. Tematyka ta świadczyć miała o uniwersalności czasopism, których treści, w założeniu redakcji, zainteresować powinny Polki z różnych grup społecznych, również kobiety nie zrzeszone w Lidze.
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The Brzanka Mountain Range in the Ciężkowickie Foothills has a dense river network. Unfortunately the contemporary maps contain only the names of some main rivers of the Brzanka Mountain Range. Local communities use the same set of names of rivers as cartographers, while studies in the historical geography of the Brzanka Mountain Range reveal a wealth of local hydronyms that have seemingly been forgotten. The article attempts both to reconstruct a set of hydronyms of the Brzanka Mountain Range and to explain their etymology. It shows that hydronyms change over time and that studies on local hydronyms can help restore the collection of the names of rivers in the Brzanka Mountain Range and provide interesting information related to the past of this region. Moreover, they reveal contemporary unknown facts related to the natural environment and settlement processes in the Middle Ages. A visual summary of the article is a map showing the Brzanka Mountain Range with its river network and associated hydronyms.
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The article discusses the book Zmiana perspektywy. Gawęda nie tylko językoznawcza [Change of perspective. More than a tale of linguistics] by Zuzanna Topolińska (Cracow 2015). The author of this text emphasizes that the word gawęda [tale] in the book’s subtitle is misleading, given that, despite the style of language used in the book, Topolińska discusses important issues of a linguistic and intercultural nature. In her short essays in the fi rst part of the book Topolińska addresses the organizational structure of philology studies in Poland and Macedonia, she confronts the Polish and Macedonian approach to the dialectgeneral language relationship, she talks about language standards, about the differences between politeness in Poland and Macedonia, as well as the attitude towards women and the outlook toward religion in both countries. In the second part of the book Topolińska takes up lexical issues, giving examples of how under the infl uence of spiritual culture certain words in Polish and Macedonian that derive from the same core have taken on a different meaning. The author of the article concludes that this short and very personal book by Topolińska fulfi lls its task and subsequently alters his view on the linguistic and non-linguistic world of the Slavs.
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The subject of the study are strategies for the development of 9 cities, which are among the strongest centres outside the current capitals of regions (in Polish: voivodeships) in the least-developed Polish regions. These cities can give the chance to activate their surroundings. Good strategies that increase the competitiveness of cities and stimulate development can contribute to this. The aim of the research was to fi nd answers to the questions whether and to what extent the studied strategies: (1) are in line with the definition and methodology of strategic planning; (2) recognize and use specific combinations of developmental factors; (3) can contribute to the development of their surroundings. The research method involved the analysis of the strategic plans in the light of the above questions. The strategies studied are not fully in line with the strategy defi nition. They contain errors and methodological flaws commonly encountered in other strategies. They use the specificity of developmental factors, but without conscious, methodical recognition of their combinations and without exposing them. The author signals methodical problems specific to the strategic planning in territorial units and makes suggestions for planning practice.
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Parliamentary elections has always been arousing extreme emotions in Poland. The 2005 and 2007 elections were widely addressed in the Polish media. Furthermore, the election campaign and the final election results attracted the attention of the British press, which was reflected in a number of articles published in the United Kingdom in 2005 and 2007 respectively. The main reason behind interest that the British press had in the political situation in Poland had to do with large population of Polish emigrants residing in the UK. The article is aimed at presenting the standpoint of one of widely-read English dailies which shapes not only the British foreign policy, but also the British public opinion, namely “The Guardian”. Through presenting the profiles of two main political parties running for the 2005 and the 2007 elections in Poland (i.e. Civic Platform as well as Law and Justice), “The Guardian” did its best to affect the results of the vote. The articles published in the daily not only described the political parties, but were also aimed at creating the image of Poland in Great Britain. Depending on the election results, the image of Poland and Poles was subject to change. “The Guardian”, British daily dealing with political matters, devoted much of its attention to parliamentary election held in Poland in Autumn 2005 and 2007. Before taking a good look at articles published in the newspaper, it is worth presenting the profile of the daily and political preferences expressed by its journalists. Originally “The Manchester Guardian”, “The Guardian” was first published in Manchester in 1821, and since 1961 has been coming out also in London. At the very beginning a weekly, now it is published Monday through Saturday and owned by world-famous Guardian Media Group plc., “The Guardian” boasts of being the first British daily produced entirely in colour. Having in mind the place and moment in history when it was first published, “The Guardian” is said to have liberal-democratic character, in other words to be in favour of the political programme outlined by British Labour Party. As for parliamentary election, since 1945 “The Guardian” has been a committed supporter of Labour Party or Liberal Democrats (an exception was election held in 1951 when the daily backed the candidature of Winston Churchill). Political sympathy expressed toward liberal parties is reflected in articles published by the daily. This was also the case with press coverage of two leading Polish political parties running for election both in 2005 and 2007, namely Law and Justice (PiS) and Civic Platform of the Republic of Poland (PO).
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Structure of fish communities of five small water reservoirs located near the Chodelka river was investigated during the years 2002, 2008 and 2016. In the analyzed water bodies seven fish were noted, representing four families: Cyprinidae (4 species) and Esocidae, Cobitidae, Peri-cidae and Ictaluridae (1 species each). In the structure of collected fish one protected species (M. fossilis) and one alien species (C. auratus gibelio) were presented. Domination structure of ichthyofauna showed considerable differences. Among the dominant species were: R. rutilus (all five reservoir) and C. auratus. The percentage of each fish species in the biomass was slightly different in relation to the structure of domination expressed by the number of identified individuals. Regardless of the reservoir, larger share held: E. lucius, R. rutilus and C. auratus.
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The paper presents the analysis of structure of fish communities in five small postexcavation reservoirs situated in Tyśmienica valley (Polesie Lubelskie). Special attention was paid to the quality of population of lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus. By the time the extensive drainage works were done in the 60s and 70s of the 20th century, Polesie Lubelskie was rich in small water reservoirs. As a result of drainage of wetlands, many of them disappeared. Among those which still exist, most of them are located in the Tyśmienica valley. The study revealed that the studied reservoir inhabited seven fish species representing two families. It was also found that structure of dominance and biomass structure is very diverse. In each reservoir the dominant species was different. The lake minnow E. percnurus was determined in three reservoires.
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In light of international law, the incorporation of the Crimean Peninsula (Crimea), which forms part of Ukraine’s territory, into the Russian Federation qualifies as annexation, i.e. the illegal acquisition of the territory of another state by the threat or use of force. In this respect, Crimea remains an occupied territory under international law. The annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation has violated many treaties and fundamental principles of international law, namely the principle of territorial integrity of states, non-intervention into the domestic affairs of another state, and the prohibition of the threat or use of force against another state. Consequently, the Russian Federation has violated Ukraine’s rights which enjoy international protection. Moreover, due to the special legal status of the principles of international law that have been violated, the Russian Federation has breached its commitments under law to the entire international community. This community has an international legal obligation not to recognize the illegal situation created by the illegal use of force in the form of armed aggression, and its consequences.
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The aim of this study was to analyze diesel fuel consumption in Poland and identification of the causes of changes in the needs of individual sectors of the economy for this type of fuel. Time range of the researches covered from 2004 to 2014. Data from the Central Statistical Office (CSO) were the source material. In the years 2004-2014 diesel consumption in Poland was 111 553 thousand tons. In 2014 domestic consumption of diesel fuel was 11 203 thousand tons and it was more than 2 times higher than the level of consumption of this fuel in 2004. The highest consumption of diesel in Poland in the period took place in 2012. The increase in the consumption of diesel fuel in Poland had benefited from increased demand for diesel in transport, which became a result of an increased amount of transport services. The share of transport in the consumption of diesel fuel in Poland for the period 2004- 2014 was about 75%. Another area, which consumes the largest quantity of DF in Poland is agriculture. Consumption of this fuel in agriculture in the years 2004- 2014 increased by 7%. DF consumption in industry and the manufacturing sector it was variable. DF biggest consumption in these sectors of the economy in the period was recorded in 2004. The analyzes did not allow to identify the specific causes of changes in the use of DF in the industry and manufacturing. In transport it showed a relationship between the consumption of diesel fuel and the amount of transport work and the transported cargo.
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Polish brines are highly mineralized and can potentially be used for recovery of selected useful elements such as magnesium and potassium. They also contain a number of other elements, including iodine, bromine, boron, and strontium. The results of the examination of the chemical composition of groundwater from the Mesozoic formations (bromine, iodine, lithium, magnesium, and strontium content) of northern and central Poland were analyzed. The basic statistical parameters of the content of these elements (Br, I, Mg) in brines of the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous deposits and the content of lithium and strontium in waters of the entire Mesozoic formations were determined. In order to indicate aquifers that are the most suitable for the recovery of bromine, iodine, lithium, magnesium, and strontium, the relationship between concentrations and the depth of retention and dependencies between selected chemical components of these waters were analyzed. It has been found that the mineralization and concentrations of magnesium, bromine, and iodine increase with the age of aquifers, where these waters occur. Triassic waters are the most prospective for bromine and magnesium recovery among all analyzed aquifers. Furthermore, a relationship between the content of bromine, strontium, and magnesium has also been observed. The increase in the content of individual elements observed for lithium, strontium, and bromine with the increasing depth indicates a potential abundance of waters occurring at significant depths. The presented analysis is an approximation of the content of bromine, iodine, lithium, magnesium, and strontium; however, it may be the basis for further studies on the perspectives of using brines from the Mesozoic deposits of central and northern Poland as a source of chemical raw materials.
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The Lower Devonian ‘Placoderm Sandstone’ in the Holy Cross Mountains (HCM) is filled with abundant impressions of disarticulated vertebrate remains. The only acanthodian macroremains named to date are fin spines of Machaeracanthus polonicus Gürich. Fin spine impressions in slabs from the Winna Formation (Emsian) at Podłazie Hill (near Daleszyce) in the southern HCM, and also the Barcza Formation (?Lochkovian) at Barcza Quarry, Miedziana Góra Conglomerate (?Lochkovian), Gruchawka, and Zagórze Formation (middle–upper Emsian) at Bukowa Mountain in the northern HCM, reposited in the University of Warsaw, Polish Geological Institute-National Research Institute, Warsaw, and Natural History Museum, London collections, have been cast and studied in order to better document this poorly known taxon. As noted in other Machaeracanthus species, we have found that M. polonicus has two different morphotypes of spines, which abut lengthwise to form a pair of spines. Our investigations show that the fin spine assemblage includes Onchus overathensis as well as M. polonicus, and probably another undetermined acanthodian. The affinities of O. overathensis are reassessed. It is here considered to be a diplacanthiform, and reassigned to the genus Striacanthus, as S. overathensis. Acanthodian scapulocoracoids have also been identified, as well as tightly spiralled toothwhorls which could be from an acanthodian.
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The Dilemmas of the Kaliningrad Oblast Today. The Kaliningrad Oblast is a Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea neighbouring with the EU countries of Poland and Lithuania. On one hand, the Oblast belongs to the Russian political, economic and defence area, and on the other, it is separated from other parts of the Russian Federation. This specific location affects the nature of the local economy, the dependence on import and a drive towards cooperating with countries abroad. The economic situation of the Kaliningrad Oblast is strictly related to the economic situation of the remaining parts of Russia. Kaliningrad is subject to principles established by the federal centre, and Moscow decides about the most important issues of the region. At the same time, the Oblast makes efforts to provide conditions for social and economic development comparable to the development standards of neighbouring countries. The residents of the Oblast can be characterised by a sense of own identity, their openness to Europe, as well as activeness and entrepreneurship as compared to other Russian citizens. The greatest number of military units in Russia cluster in Kaliningrad Oblast. This potential is continually strengthened with the progressing modernisation of Russian military forces. Small border traffic, initiated in July 21 between the Republic of Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the RF, had a major impact on the animation, volume and the dynamics of cross-border relations and the promotion of Poland. In July 2016, the Polish side suspended the project.
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Inflow areas of Poles to Germany after the EU enlargement in 2004. The aim of this article is to analyse one of the important components of contemporary Polish-German relationships, i.e. migration of Polish population to Germany. The scale and dynamics of this process have intensified since Poland’s accession to the European Union in 2004 and full opening of the German labour market to Polish citizens in 2011. The article focuses on spatial consequences of Polish-German migration seen from the perspective of the immigrant country. Its conclusions are based on unique statistical data and cartographic materials.
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The cognitive aim of this study is to point to the optimum number of local government units and the optimum boundaries of spatial units in Poland with the assumption of minimizing the cumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. The methodological aim, in turn, is to present the use of the ArcGIS location-allocation tool for the purposes of delimitation processes as exemplified by administrative boundaries in Poland. The rationale for the implementation of this study is that number and the boundaries of units of all levels of Poland’s current territorial division are far from optimum in the light of minimization of accumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. It may be concluded that it would be justifiable to increase the number of voivodships from the current number of 16 to 18. Besides it would be necessary to introduce modifications in relation to units with regional functions. In contrast, the number of districts and communes should be reduced. A continuation of this research may go in the direction of including analysis of public transport network in the research, creating in this way a multimodal set of network data. This would illustrate, apart from the potential itself resulting from the infrastructure, also the actually existing connections.
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Structure of fish communities of five small water reservoirs located near the Wieprz--Krzna Canal was investigated during the years 2002, 2008 and 2014. In the analyzed water bod-ies seven fish were noted, representing four families: Cyprinidae (5 species) and Esocidae, Cobi-tidae and Ictaluridae (1 species each). In the structure of collected fish two protected species (M. fossilis and R. sericeus amarus) and one alien species (C. auratus gibelio) were presented. Domination structure of ichthyofauna showed considerable differences. Among the dominant species were: I. nebulosus (all five reservoir), C. auratus (Jabłoń Center 2, Jabłoń Church and Jabłoń Firlej-Ostrówek), and R. rutilus (Jabłoń West and Jabłoń Firlej-Ostrówek). The percentage of each fish species in the biomass was slightly different in relation to the structure of domination expressed by the number of identified individuals. Regardless of the reservoir, larger share held: E. lucius, I. nebulosus and C. auratus Moreover, one of the purpose of the study was searching for a new stands of lake minnow. However, the species was not recorded in fish communities of any of the reservoirs, despite of the ecological state of reservoirs indicating the potential habitat for lake minnow.
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The European Union is founded on a set of common principles of democracy, the rule of law, and fundamental rights, as enshrined in Article 2 of the Treaty on the European Union. Whereas future Member States are vetted for their compliance with these values before they accede to the Union, no similar method exists to supervise respect of these foundational principles after accession. This gap needs to be filled, since history proved that EU Member State governments’ adherence to foundational EU values cannot be taken for granted. Against this background this article assesses the need and possibilities for the establishment of an EU Scoreboard on EU values; viable strategies and procedures to regularly monitor all Member States’ compliance with the rule of law on an equal and objective basis; and the nature of effective and dissuasive sanction mechanisms foreseen for rule of law violators.
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