The present study aims to scrutinize teacher motivation in relation to two individual level predictors, namely, self -efficacy and burnout among English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers. To this end, 142 English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers were selected from various English language institutes of Mashhad and Tehran, two cities in Iran. They were requested to complete three questionnaires: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale, and the Work Tasks Motivation Scale for Teachers. The findings obtained via SEM revealed that the proposed model had a good fit with the empirical data. In particular, it was found that job motivation contributed significantly to burnout depletion. It was also revealed that self -efficacy positively predicted job motivation, and burnout negatively influenced self -efficacy. However, self -efficacy surpassed motivation in predicting EFL instructors’ burnout. Results were discussed from both theoretical standpoints as well as previous empirical findings. Finally, implications were presented.
Detailed studies on the effects of pulsed laser interference heating on surface characteristics and subsurface microstructure of amorphous Fe80Si11B9 alloy are reported. Laser interference heating, with relatively low pulsed laser energy (90 and 120 mJ), but with a variable number (from 50-500) of consecutive laser pulses permitted to get energy accumulation in heated areas. Such treatment allowed to form two- Dimensional micro-islands of laser-affected material periodically distributed in amorphous matrix. The crystallization process of amorphous FeSiB ribbons was studied by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Detailed microstructural examination showed that the use of laser beam, resulted in development of nanostructure in the heated areas of the amorphous ribbon. The generation of nanocrystalline seed islands created by pulsed laser interference was observed. This key result may evidently give new knowledge concerning the differences in microstructure formed during the conventional and lased induced crystallization the amorphous alloys. Further experiments are needed to clarify the effect of pulsed laser interference crystallization on magnetic properties of these alloys.
Nanostructured, biocompatible, TiC/Ti Supersonic Cold Gas Sprayed coatings were deposited onto a Ti6Al4V alloy and their microstructure, wear resistance and hardness were investigated. The starting nanostructured powder, containing a varied mixture of Ti and TiC particles, was produced by high energy ball milling. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used for structural and chemical analyses of powder particles and coatings. Coatings, 250-350 μm thick, preserving the nanostructure and chemical powder composition, with low porosity and relatively high hardness (~850 HV), were obtained. These nanostructured TiC/Ti coatings exhibited better tribological properties than commonly used biomedical benchmark materials, due to an appropriate balance of hard and soft nano-phases.