Wytrzymałość połączeń taśm przenośnikowych wykonywanych w kopalniach rzadko osiąga pełną wytrzymałość taśmy. Składa się na to wiele czynników. Podstawowym jest metoda ich wykonania oraz właściwy dobór składników. Istotny wpływ ma też, jakość wykonania obejmująca zarówno dotrzymanie odpowiedniej geometrii dopasowanej do budowy taśmy i warunków jej pracy, jak i przestrzeganie dobrych praktyk w zakresie technologii ich wykonania. Trudne warunki w kopalniach podziemnych i presja redukcji czasu postoju przenośników (unikanie strat produkcji) odbija się na spadku wytrzymałości statycznej i dynamicznej połączeń. Potwierdzają to liczne badania ich wytrzymałości i trwałości zmęczeniowej prowadzone w Laboratorium Transportu Taśmowego (LTT) w ramach prac badawczych i ekspertyz zlecanych przez producentów taśm i ich użytkowników. Konsekwencją zbyt niskiej wytrzymałości połączeń jest niewielka ich trwałość, spadek niezawodności i w konsekwencji wzrost kosztów transportu. Połączenia taśm stanowią bowiem najsłabsze ogniwo w szeregowej strukturze, jaką tworzą zamknięte pętle połączonych ze sobą odcinków taśm pracujących w ciągach przenośników transportujących urobek w kopalni. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki analiz symulacyjnych pozwalających zbadać jak wzrost trwałości połączeń może przyczynić się do redukcji kosztów transportu w kopalniach podziemnych.
Very well-known advantages of aluminum alloys, such as low mass, good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, machining-ability, high recycling potential and low cost are considered as a driving force for their development, i.e. implementation in new applications as early as in stage of structural design, as well as in development of new technological solutions. Mechanical and technological properties of the castings made from the 3xx.x group of alloys depend mainly on correctly performed processes of melting and casting, design of a mould and cast element, and a possible heat treatment. The subject-matter of this paper is elaboration of a diagrams and dependencies between parameters of dispersion hardening (temperatures and times of solutioning and ageing treatments) and mechanical properties obtained after heat treatment of the 356.0 (EN AC AlSi7Mg) alloy, enabling full control of dispersion hardening process to programming and obtaining a certain technological quality of the alloy in terms of its mechanical properties after performed heat treatments. Obtained results of the investigations have enabled obtainment of a dependencies depicting effect of parameters of the solutioning and ageing treatments on the mechanical properties (Rm, A5 and KC impact strength) of the investigated alloy. Spatial diagrams elaborated on the basis of these dependencies enable us to determine tendencies of changes of the mechanical properties of the 356.0 alloy in complete analyzed range of temperature and duration of the solutioning and ageing operations.
The functionality of a prosthesis is determined by clinical procedures, the manufacturing technology applied, the material used and its strength parameters. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the static strength and fatigue strength of acrylic construction materials directly after the process of polymerisation and for aged materials. It has been confirmed that the deformation speed of the tested materials has an evident impact on their mechanical characteristics. With greater deformation speed, a consistent increase in the material elasticity was observed in static compression tests, which was accompanied by a reduction in engineering stresses at the final stage of deformation. The greatest fatigue strength was observed for Vertex. It was by about 33% greater than the strength of Villacryl – the material that has the lowest fatigue properties. The resistance of acrylic polymers to cyclic loading applied with the frequency of 1 Hz may become an indication for the selection of the material to be used in the clinical procedures in which a patient is provided with full dentures.
The paper presents the results of research of impact strength of aluminum alloy EN AC-44200 based composite materials reinforced with alumina particles. The research was carried out applying the materials produced by the pressure infiltration method of ceramic preforms made of Al2O3 particles of 3-6m with the liquid EN AC-44200 Al alloy. The research was aimed at determining the composite resistance to dynamic loads, taking into account the volume of reinforcing particles (from 10 to 40% by volume) at an ambient of 23°C and at elevated temperatures to a maximum of 300°C. The results of this study were referred to the unreinforced matrix EN AC-44200 and to its hardness and tensile strength. Based on microscopic studies, an analysis and description of crack mechanics of the tested materials were performed. Structural analysis of a fracture surface, material structures under the crack surfaces of the matrix and cracking of the reinforcing particles were performed.
To improve mechanical properties and increasing useful life of metal pieces, different methods of welding are used for repairing surface crack of metal pieces. In this research, performance of flame welding method by spraying pure iron powder evaluated for repairing surface grooves of structural steel. First, four specimens including one control specimen and other three specimens grooved specimens in depth of 1mm and in length of 12.5mm and groove width in the sizes of 0.5, 0.75 and 1mm.were prepared then, powder melted using oxyacetylene reducing flame and spraying iron powder in the flame path and attached to the inner surface of the groove and finally, the specimen repaired. Results showed that after repairing surface groove, tensile strength of the repaired specimens were reached to the tensile strength of control specimen with the margin of 2.5%.
This study shows the results of the investigation of the strength performance, and residual strength of a single component inorganic binder system Cast Clean S27®. The study was conducted using three different foundry sand sources in South Africa. Sample A is an alluvial coastal sample, sample B is an alluvial riverbed sample and Sample C is a blasted sample from a consolidated quartzite rock. The binder was also cured using three different curing mechanisms. The aim of the investigation was to determine the variation of strength performance and residual strength between the different South African sand sources based upon the physical and chemical properties of the sand sources. The moulding sand was prepared using three possible curing mechanisms which are carbon dioxide curing, ester curing and heat curing. The strength measurements were determined by bending strength. Sample A and sample C sand had good strength development. Sample B sand had inferior strength development and excellent high temperature residual strength. The study showed that the single component inorganic binders have good strength development and low residual strength. The silica sand properties have major contributing factors on both strength development and residual strength. The degree of influence of silica sand properties on strength performance and residual strength is dependent on the time of curing and method of curing.
In the paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of preliminary wetting of high-silica base during preparation of moulding sands containing a selected grade of sodium water-glass, designed for hardening by traditional drying or by electromagnetic microwaves at 2.45 GHz. In the research, some water was dosed during stirring the sandmix before adding 1.5 wt% of the binder that was unmodified sodium water-glass grade 137, characterised by high molar module within 3.2 to 3.4. Scope of the examinations included determining the effect of wetting the base on mechanical parameters like compression, bending and tensile strength, as well as on technological parameters like permeability, abrasion resistance and apparent density. The research revealed a significant positive effect of adding water to wet surfaces of high-silica base grains on mechanical properties and quality of moulding sands hardened by physical methods, in particular by microwave heating
Mechanical and technological properties of castings made from 3xx.x alloys depend mainly on properly performed process of melting and casting, structure of a casting and mould, as well as possible heat treatment. Precipitation processes occurring during the heat treatment of the silumins containing additives of Cu and/or Mg have effect on improvement of mechanical properties of the material, while choice of parameters of solutioning and ageing treatments belongs to objectives of research work performed by a number of authors. Shortened heat treatment, which is presented in the paper assures suitable mechanical properties (Rm), and simultaneously doesn’t cause any increase of production costs of a given component due to long lasting operations of the solutioning and ageing. Results of the research concern effects of the solutioning and ageing parameters on the Rm tensile strength presented in form of the second degree polynomial and illustrated in spatial diagrams. Performed shortened heat treatment results in considerable increase of the Rm tensile strength of the 320.0 alloy as early as after 1 hour of the solutioning and 2 hours of the ageing performed in suitable.
In this study, high performance magnesium-yttria nanocomposite’s room temperature, strength and ductility were significantly enhanced by the dispersion of nano-sized nickel particles using powder blending and a microwave sintering process. The strengthening effect of the dispersed nano-sized nickel particles was consistent up to 100°C and then it gradually diminished with further increases in the test temperature. The ductility of the magnesium-yttria nanocomposite remained unaffected by the dispersed nano-sized nickel particles up to 100°C. Impressively, it was enhanced at 150°C and above, leading to the possibility of the near net shape fabrication of the nanocomposite at a significantly low temperature.
The paper presents results of compressive strength investigations of EN AC-44200 based aluminum alloy composite materials reinforced with aluminum oxide particles at ambient and at temperatures of 100, 200 and 250C. They were manufactured by squeeze casting of the porous preforms made of α-Al2O3 particles with liquid aluminum alloy EN AC-44200. The composite materials were reinforced with preforms characterized by the porosities of 90, 80, 70 and 60 vol. %, thus the alumina content in the composite materials was 10, 20, 30 and 40 vol.%. The results of the compressive strength of manufactured materials were presented and basing on the microscopic observations the effect of the volume content of strengthening alumina particles on the cracking mechanisms during compression at indicated temperatures were shown and discussed. The highest compressive strength of 470 MPa at ambient temperature showed composite materials strengthened with 40 vol.% of α-Al2O3 particles.
The results of testing of the selected group of wax mixtures used in the investment casting technology, are presented in the paper. The measurements of the kinetics of the mixtures shrinkage and changes of viscous-plastic properties as a temperature function were performed. The temperature influence on bending strength of wax mixtures was determined.
Describes how to obtain a soluble sodium silicate with a density of 1.40 g/cm3, 1.45 g/cm3, 1.50 g/cm3, and silica module M = 2.1 obtained from the silica- sodium glass with module M = 3.3 and M = 2.1. Residual (final) strength of molding samples made with these binders, were determined at temperatures corresponding to the characteristic temperatures of phase and temperature transitions of silica gel. Indicated the type of soluble sodium silicate capable of obtain the smallest value of the final strength of molding sand in the specified range of temperatures.
Metal pieces wear out due to variable loading, because cracks formed on their surface of them. In order to increase useful life of metal pieces with the help of different methods of welding, surface cracks are repaired. In this research, performance of the diffusion welding of pure iron powder through magnetic induction evaluated for repairing structural steel surface cracks. First, four specimens prepared including one control specimen and other three specimens grooved specimens in length of 6.25mm and in depth of 1mm and groove width in the sizes of 0.5, 0.75 and 1mm. Then by a coil, the induced current created in the piece surface. After crossing the current, the powder melted and the groove repaired due to diffusion welding. To prevent oxidation, the atmosphere inside the coil filled with argon gas. The results show that after repairing surface groove, tensile strength of the repaired specimens reached to the tensile strength of control specimen with the margin of 7.5%.
Oxide fiber-reinforced Ni-base composites have long been considered as attractive heat-resistant materials. After several decades of active research, however, interest in these materials began to decline around mid-1990’s due chiefly to 1) a lack of manufacturing technology to grow inexpensive single-crystal oxide fibers to be used in structural composites, and 2) fiber strength loss during processing due to chemical interactions with reactive solutes in the matrix. The cost disadvantage has been mitigated to a large extent by the development of innovative fiber fabrication processes such as the Internal Crystallization Method (ICM) that produces monocrystalline oxide fibers in a cost-effective manner. Fiber strength loss has been an equally restrictive issue but recent work has shown that it may be possible to design creep-resistant composites even when fiber surface reconstruction from chemical interactions has degraded the strength of extracted fibers tested outside the matrix. The key issue is the optimization of the composite- and interface structure. Reaction-formed defects may be healed by the matrix (or a suitable coating material) so that the fiber residing in the matrix may exhibit diminished sensitivity to flaws as compared to fibers extracted from the matrix and tested in isolation of the matrix. Generally, the Ni-base/Al2O3 composites exhibit acceptable levels of wettability and interface strength (further improved with the aid of reactive solutes), which are required for elevated-temperature creep-resistance. In order to harness the full potential of these composites, the quality of the interface as manifested in the fiber/matrix wettability, interface composition, interphase morphology, and interface strength must be designed. We identify key issues related to the measurement of contact angle, interface strength, and chemical and structural properties at the fiber/matrix interface in the Ni/alumina composites, and present the current state-ofthe-art in understanding and designing the Ni/alumina interface. There should be no doubt that optimization of the interface- and composite microstructure through judicious control of the fabrication process and surface modification shall yield technologically promising Ni-base/oxide fiber composites.
Heat treatment of a casting elements poured from silumins belongs to technological processes aimed mainly at change of their mechanical properties in solid state, inducing predetermined structural changes, which are based on precipitation processes (structural strengthening of the material), being a derivative of temperature and duration of solutioning and ageing operations. The subject-matter of this paper is the issue concerning implementation of a heat treatment process, basing on selection of dispersion hardening parameters to assure improvement of technological quality in terms of mechanical properties of a clamping element of energy network suspension, poured from hypoeutectic silumin of the LM25 brand; performed on the basis of experimental research program with use of the ATD method, serving to determination of temperature range of solutioning and ageing treatments. The heat treatment performed in laboratory conditions on a component of energy network suspension has enabled increase of the tensile strength Rm and the hardness HB with about 60-70% comparing to the casting without the heat treatment, when the casting was solutioned at temperature 520 o C for 1 hour and aged at temperature 165 o C during 3 hours.
The results of investigations of the influence of the matrix grain sizes on properties of cores made by the blowing method are presented in the hereby paper. Five kinds of matrices, differing in grain size compositions, determined by the laser diffraction method in the Analysette 22NanoTec device, were applied in investigations. Individual kinds of matrices were used for making core sands in the Cordis technology. From these sands the shaped elements, for determining the apparent density of compacted sands and their bending strength, were made by the blowing method. The shaped elements (cores) were made at shooting pressures being 3, 4 and 5 atn. The bending strength of samples were determined directly after their preparation and after the storing time of 1 hour.
In this paper an attempt to determine the relationship between the electrical resistivity and the tensile strength and hardness of cast iron of carbon equivalent in the range from 3.93% to 4.48%. Tests were performed on the gray cast iron for 12 different melts with different chemical composition. From one melt poured 6 samples. Based on the study of mechanical and electro-resistive determined variation characteristics of tensile strength, hardness and resistivity as a function of the carbon equivalent. Then, regression equations were developed as power functions describing the relationship between the resistivity of castings and their tensile strength and hardness. It was found a high level of regression equations to measuring points, particularly with regard to the relationship Rm=f(ρ). The obtained preliminary results indicate the possibility of application of the method of the resistance to rapid diagnostic casts on the production line, when we are dealing with repeatable production, in this case non variable geometry of the product for which it has been determinated before a regression equation.
The criteria, with which one should be guided at the assessment of the binding properties of bentonites used for moulding sands, are proposed in the paper. Apart from the standard parameter which is the active bentonite content, the unrestrained growth indicator should be taken into account since it seems to be more adequate in the estimation of the sand compression strength. The investigations performed for three kinds of bentonites, applied in the Polish foundry plants, subjected to a high temperature influences indicate, that the pathway of changes of the unrestrained growth indicator is very similar to the pathway of changes of the sand compression strength. Instead, the character of changes of the montmorillonite content in the sand in dependence of the temperature is quite different. The sand exhibits the significant active bentonite content, and the sand compression strength decreases rapidly. The montmorillonite content in bentonite samples was determined by the modern copper complex method of triethylenetetraamine (Cu(II)-TET). Tests were performed for bentonites and for sands with those bentonites subjected to high temperatures influences in a range: 100-700ºC.
The experimental material consisted of semi-finished products of high-grade, medium-carbon constructional steel with: manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum and boron. The experimental material consisted of steel products obtained in three metallurgical processes: electric and desulfurized (E), electric and desulfurized with argon-refined (EA) and oxygen converter with vacuum degassed of steel (KP). The production process involved two melting technologies: in a 140-ton basic arc furnace with desulphurisation and argon refining variants, and in a 100-ton oxygen converter. Billet samples were collected to analyze: relative volume of impurities, microstructure and fatigue tests. The samples were quenched and austenitized at a temperature of 880o C for 30 minutes. They were then cooled in water and tempered by holding the sections at a temperature of 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600o C for 120 minutes and air-cooled. Fatigue tests were performed with the use of a rotary bending machine at a frequency of 6000 cpm. The results were statistical processed and presented in graphic form. This paper discusses the results of microstructural analyses, the distribution of the relative volume of impurities in different size ranges, the fatigue strength characteristics of different production processes, the average number of sampledamaging cycles and the average values of the fatigue strength coefficient for various heat processing options.
In the knock-out process, as well as in the preliminary phase of moulding sand reclamation, the issue of energy demand for the process of crushing used sand agglutinations, preferably to single grains, is particularly important. At present, numerical values of moulding sand impact resistance, which would allow energy-related aspects of this process to be forecast, are not known, as such research has not been carried out. It seems that impact resistance tested on very small cross-section samples, which allows us to very precisely reveal some unique features of a moulding sand with organic and inorganic binders, is an important parameter, which so far has not been taken into account for evaluation of mechanical properties of moulding sands. Preliminary attempts to determine impact resistance of moulding sands have been carried out as part of own research of the author. The conducted investigations aimed at determining the relationships between the obtained values of tensile strength and impact resistance of moulding sands. In addition, the effect of holding samples at temperatures of 100oC, 200oC, 300oC on the value of impact resistance was determined, both for sands made with fresh and with reclaimed sand grains.
The paper presents the results of preliminary research on the use of silica sands with hydrated sodium silicate 1.5% wt. of binder for the performance of eco-friendly casting cores in hot-box technology. To evaluate the feasibility of high quality casting cores performed by the use of this method, the tests were made with the use of a semiautomatic core shooter using the following operating parameters: initial shooting pressure of 6 bar, shot time 4 s and 2 s, core-box temperature 200, 250 and 300 °C and core heating time 30, 60, 90 and 150 s. Matrixes of the moulding sands were two types of high-silica sand: fine and medium. Moulding sand binder was a commercial, unmodified hydrated sodium silicate having a molar module SiO2/Na2O of 2.5. In one shot of a core-shooter were made three longitudinal samples (cores) with a total volume of about 2.8 dm3. The samples thus obtained were subjected to an assessment of the effect of shooting parameters, i.e. shooting time, temperature and heating time, using the criteria: core-box fill rate, bending strength (RgU), apparent density and surface quality after hardening. The results of the trials on the use of sodium silicate moluding sands made it possible to further refine the conditions of next research into the improvement of inorganic warm-box/hot-box technology aimed at: reduction of heating temperature and shot time. It was found that the performance of the cores depends on the efficiency of the venting system, shooting time, filling level of a shooting chamber and grains of the silica matrix used.
The article discusses the weldment to casting conversion process of rocker arm designed for operation in a special purpose vehicle to obtain a consistency of objective functions, which assume the reduced weight of component, the reduced maximum effort of material under the impact of service loads achieved through topology modification for optimum strength distribution in the sensitive areas, and the development of rocker arm manufacturing technology. As a result of conducted studies, the unit weight of the item was reduced by 25%, and the stress limit values were reduced to a level guaranteeing safe application.