The addition of hard ceramic particles of nc-(Ti,Mo)C in carbon network into Ti matrix has been proved to be an efficient way to enhance their properties. The purpose of this work was to analyze the corrosion, tribological, mechanical and morphological effects of combining nc-(Ti,Mo)C/C with titanium metal, to create a unique composite via selective laser melting technique (SLM). Composites with different weight percentage (5, 10 and 20 wt %) of ceramic phase were produced. The samples of pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy were also tested, as a reference. These composites were examined for corrosion resistance in body fluid (artificial saliva solution). Moreover, the properties of titanium composites reinforced with nc-TiC powders were compared. It was stated that mechanical properties were significantly improved with increasing amount of nc-(Ti,Mo)C/C in Ti matrix. In terms of corrosion resistance, the composites showed worse properties compared to pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy, but better than TiC-reinforced composites.
Multilayered composites based on light metals are promising materials in many applications. In the present work the 15-layered clad, composed of alternately stacked of Ti(Gr.1) and AA1050-H24 alloy sheets of 1 mm thick has been investigated with respect to determination of the kinetic of the Al3Ti phase growth. The defect-free multilayered composite was successfully formed by explosive welding technology. Then EXW samples were modified via annealing at the temperature of 600oC in closed die under pressure of 44 MPa for various times ranged between 1 and 10 h. Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy examinations were conducted in order to study the kinetic of the elements migration across the interfaces between the layers of the Al/Ti composite. The macro-scale observations of samples after EXW revealed that wavy interfaces were always formed in layers near the explosive charge. The increase of the distance from the top surface leads to flattening of the interface with very thin reaction layer between Al and Ti sheets. During annealing the kinetic of the Al3Ti phase growth is similar near all interfaces and coincides with data from other works. It was found that despite the loading after 10 h of annealing still only small part of Al-sheets undergoes dissolution and the width of the reaction layer does not exceed 5-8 µm.
In this study, the combined effect of Zr and Si on isothermal oxidation of Ti for 25 and 50 h at 820°C, which is the temperature related to exhaust valves operation, was investigated. Si addition into Ti-5mass%Zr alloy led to a distribution of silicide Ti5Si3 phase formed by a eutectic reaction. The Ti sample containing only Zr showed more retarded oxidation rate than Ti-6Al-4V, the most prevalent Ti alloy, at the same condition. However, while a simultaneous addition of Zr and Si resulted in greater increase of oxidation resistance. The oxide layer formed after the addition of Zr and Si comprised TiO2, ZrO2, and SiO2.
In this research work, Ti6Al4V alloy material was subjected to electric discharge machining (EDM) and its fatigue life was investigated at low cycle fatigue mode. In order to evaluate the influence of recast layer generated during the machining process on the fatigue life, samples prepared using end milling process were also subjected to similar tests and a comparative analysis is presented. Data were observed in the fully reversed fatigue mode at room temperature using samples fabricated as per ASTM standard E606. The specimen were machined on a spark electric discharge die sink machine which were subjected to fatigue, and the recorded fatigue lives were compared with the fatigue life of end milled specimen. The machined surfaces were examined through optical and scanning electron microscopes, and the roughness was measured with a standard profilometer. It was observed that when the discharge current is augmented, the recast layer formed was in the range of 20 to 70 µm thick. From the results, it is being concluded that fatigue life of the samples fabricated by EDM is less for various load conditions when compared with that of the end milled sample. The milled sample at 160 MPa load exhibited 2.71×105 cycles, which is 64% more when compared to EDM sample.
Thermodynamic optimizations of the ternary Fe-B-Ti system and its binary sub-system, B-Ti are presented. The thermodynamic descriptions of the other binaries, Fe-Ti and Fe-B, are taken from the earlier studies slightly modifying the Fe-Ti system assessment. The adjustable parameters of the Fe-B-Ti and B-Ti systems are optimized in this study using the experimental thermodynamic and the phase equilibrium data from the literature. The solution phases of the system are described using the substitutional solution model and the compounds (including borides) are treated as stoichiometric phases. The results show a good correlation between the calculated and measured thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data.
Mixture of nickel and titanium powders were milled in planetary mill under argon atmosphere for 100 hours at room temperature. Every 10 hours the structure, morphology and chemical composition was studied by X-ray diffraction method (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as electron transmission microscope (TEM). Analysis revealed that elongation of milling time caused alloying of the elements. After 100 hours of milling the powders was in nanocrystalline and an amorphous state. Also extending of milling time affected the crystal size and microstrains of the alloying elements as well as the newly formed alloy. Crystallization of amorphous alloys proceeds above 600°C. In consequence, the alloy (at room temperature) consisted of mixture of the B2 parent phase and a small amount of the B19’ martensite. Dependently on the milling time and followed crystallization the NiTi alloy can be received in a form of the powder with average crystallite size from 1,5 up to 4 nm.
The paper has presented the results of theoretical studies and experimental tests of the plastic deformation of multi-layered Ti/Al/Mg specimens. Theoretical studies were carried out using the Forge2011® computer program. Physical modeling, on the other hand, was performed using the Gleeble3800 simulator. Cuboidal specimens were cut off from the plates obtained in the explosive welding method. Based on the obtained investigation results it has been found non uniform deformation of the particular layer as a result their different value of flow stress.
To investigate the impact of various Al-Ti-B grain-refiners on solidification and grain-refining performance, a wrought aluminium alloy AA6182 was used. Three different grain-refiners from different manufacturers were used to establish the efficiency, i.e. contact time before casting, on the primary solidification and grain formation size. The primary solidification of α-Al grains at inoculation was observed by using thermal analysis (TA). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used in order to analyze the quality of various grain-refiners. The size of the primary grains was analyzed using optical microscopy (OM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to estimate the size and distribution of Al3Ti and TiB2 particles in various grain-refiners and to establish the best efficiency of the investigated grain-refiners. Within 1-4 min of inoculation the smallest fine equiaxed grains were achieved when either one of the investigated grain-refiners was added. It was established, that grain-refiner A contains higher content of impurities which do not melt in the experimental temperature range made by DSC method. The most pure grain-refiner turned out to be grain-refiner B, in which the most optimal number of TiB2 particles and particle size distribution was found.
The current study were performed in order to assess the fabrication possibility of the metal-ceramic composites based on nanocrystalline substrates. The influence of the variable time of the high energy ball-milling (10, 30 and 50 h) on the structure, pores morphology and microhardness of Ti/ZrO2 and Ti/Al2O3 compositions was studied. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the composite formation for all milling times and sintering in the case of Ti/ZrO2 system. Decomposition of substrates during milling process of Ti/Al2O3 system was also observed. Additionally, the changes of lattice parameter as a function of milling time were studied. The morphology of powders and the microstructure of the sintered samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, analysis of microhardness and pores structure were performed.
Nanostructured, biocompatible, TiC/Ti Supersonic Cold Gas Sprayed coatings were deposited onto a Ti6Al4V alloy and their microstructure, wear resistance and hardness were investigated. The starting nanostructured powder, containing a varied mixture of Ti and TiC particles, was produced by high energy ball milling. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used for structural and chemical analyses of powder particles and coatings. Coatings, 250-350 μm thick, preserving the nanostructure and chemical powder composition, with low porosity and relatively high hardness (~850 HV), were obtained. These nanostructured TiC/Ti coatings exhibited better tribological properties than commonly used biomedical benchmark materials, due to an appropriate balance of hard and soft nano-phases.
Modified Bohm’s formalism was applied to solve the problem of abstruse layer depth profiles measured by the Auger electron spectroscopy technique in real physical systems. The desorbed carbon/passive layer on an NiTi substrate and the adsorbed oxygen/ surface of an NiTi alloy were studied. It was shown that the abstruse layer profiles can be converted to real layer structures using the modified Bohm’s theory, where the quantum potential is due to the Auger electron effect. It is also pointed out that the stationary probability density predicts the multilayer structures of the abstruse depth profiles that are caused by the carbon desorption and oxygen adsorption processes. The criterion for a kind of break or “cut” between the physical and unphysical multilayer systems was found. We conclude with the statement that the physics can also be characterised by the abstruse measurement and modified Bohm’s formalism.
This paper presents the study of microstructure and properties of 8 mol% yttrium stabilized zirconia coating fabricated by Plasma Spray Physical Vapor Deposition technique on commercial pure titanium. The coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction, high resolution scanning electron microscope, profilometer, nanoindentation and nanomachining tests. The X-ray phase analysis exhibit the tetragonal Zr0.935Y0.065O1.968, TiO and α-Ti phases. The Rietveld refinement technique were indicated the changes of crystal structure of the produced coatings. The characteristic structure of columns were observed in High Resolutions Scanning Electron Microscopy. Moreover, the obtained coating had various development of surfaces, thickness was equal to 3.1(1) µm and roughness 0.40(7) µm. Furthermore, the production coatings did not show microcracks, delamination and crumbing. The performed experiment encourages carried out us to tests for osseointegration.
This study was carried out to evaluate the aspect of microstructure and mechanical property development on additive manufactured pure Ti at elevated heat-input. For this work, pure Ti powder (commercial purity, grade 1) was selected, and selective laser melting was conducted from 0.5 to 1.4 J/mm. As a result, increase in heat-input led to the significant grain growth form 4 μm to 12 μm, accompanying with the change of grain shape, correctly widmanstätten structured grains. In addition, Vickers microhardness was notably increased from 228 Hv to 358 Hv in accordance with elevated heat-input, which was attributed to the increased concentration of oxygen and nitrogen mainly occurred during selected laser melting process.
In this study, BaFe12-2xCoxTixO19 (X : 0 to 2.0, 0.2) powders were synthesized by sol-gel process. TG-DTA, XRD, SEM, VSM, and Network analyzer were measured in order to influence easy magnetization axis change on the wave absorption frequency range change. The easy magnetization axis change of the annealed powder at 900°C and 1200°C was confirmed by the coercive force decreased 4,800 and 3,870 Oe to 260 and 269 Oe, respectively, at the substitution ratio of 0.8 and 1.0. And it was confirmed that the change of the easy magnetization axis affected the change of the wave absorption frequency. The wave absorption frequency of substituted Barium Ferrite was less than 10 GHz range after the easy magnetization axis of Barium ferrite changed to a-b plan direction. It was confirmed the BaFe12-2xCoxTixO19(x = 0.8 to 1.6) was synthesized by the sol-gel process and it was annealed at 900°C and 1200°C, which could be used as a wave absorber in the X-band region of 10 GHz less.
The paper presents the results of research studies involving the ceramic-metal tool materials with the deposited nitride coatings on the basis of aluminium, titanium and silicon. The cathodic arc evaporation with lateral rotating cathodes method was used for deposition of nanocrystalline, wear resistant nitride coatings – AlTiSiN type. Structural examinations are presented of the applied coatings and their support material made on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scanning/transmission electron microscope (STEM). Chemical composition analysis as a function of the distance from the specimen surface, the so-called profile analysis, were carried out also. The structural analysis confirms that deposited multilayer coatings have dense microstructure without any visible porosity and delamination. It was found that the investigated coatings have nanocrystalline structure and consisting of fine crystallites even less than 6nm. Lattice deformations and numerous structural defects were also observed in the nanolayers. Depositing the AlTiSiN coatings results in the significant hardness increase within the range of 2252 ±256 to 2908 ±295 HV0.01.
The subject of the paper is structural stability of the Zn-26 wt.% Al binary alloys doped with 2.2 wt.% Cu or 1.6 wt.% Ti addition. The structural stability of Zn-Al alloys with increased Al content is connected with stability of solid solution of zinc in aluminium α', which is the main component of these alloys microstructure. Such a solution undergoes phase transformations which are accompanied, among others, by changes in dimensions and strength properties. The structural stability of the ZnAL26Cu2.2 and ZnAl26Ti1.6 alloys was investigated using XRD examinations during long term natural ageing after casting, as well as during long term natural ageing after super-saturation and quenching. On the basis of the performed examinations it was stated that small Ti addition to the binary ZnAl25 alloy, apart from structure refinement, accelerates decomposition of the primary α' phase giving stable structure in a shorter period of time in comparison with the alloy without Ti addition. Addition of Ti in amount of 1.6 wt.%, totally replacing Cu, allows obtaining stable structure and dimensions and allows avoiding structural instability caused by the metastable ε−CuZn4 phase present in the ZnAl26Cu2.2 alloy.
In the present investigation, the morphology of Ti inclusions in high strength tire cord steel was investigated and their precipitation behavior was discussed using a precipitation and growth model. The results show that Ti inclusions mainly exist in the form of TiN. The two-dimensional characterization of Ti inclusions is square-like with sharp edges and corners, while its three-dimensional shape exhibits a cubic or rectangular-prism morphology. The Ti inclusions do not precipitate when the solid fraction of tire cord during solidification is less than 0.987, and their final radius is closely related to the cooling rate and initial concentration product. The higher the cooling speed, the smaller the final radius, when the cooling speed is constant, the final radius of Ti inclusions is mainly determined by the initial concentration product, w[N]0×w[Ti]0. In order to retard the precipitation and growth of Ti inclusions in tire cord steel, the cooling rate and initial concentration product can be taken into consideration.
A series of Al-5Ti-1B master alloys were obtained via fluoride salt process by holding them between 780°C and 880°C for 10-90 min. The influence of holding temperature and time during preparation on the microstructure and its refining performance were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equ ipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated both the morphology and the distribution of TiB2 and Al3Ti were seriously affected by holding conditions. Inadequate TiB2 particles were generated when holding time was short. However, Fe-containing impurity particles that aggregated along the matrix grain boundaries were found after the prolonged holding time. The refining and microhardness test results revealed that Al -5Ti-1B, the one held at 820°C for 30 min showed the optimum refining efficiency on Al-Cu alloy.
In this study, two different compositions of submicron-structured titanium (760 nm) and micron-structured chromium (4.66 μm) powders were mixed to fabricate Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys by vacuum hot-press sintering. The research imposed various hot-press sintering pressures (20, 35 and 50 MPa), while the sintering temperature maintained at 1250°C for 1 h. The experimental results showed that the optimum parameters of the hot-press sintered Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys were 1250°C at 50 MPa for 1 h. Also, the relative density reached 99.94%, the closed porosity decreased to 0.04% and the hardness and transverse rupture strength (TRS) values increased to 81.90 HRA and 448.53 MPa, respectively. Moreover, the electrical conductivity is enhanced to 1.58 × 104 S·cm–1. However, the grain growth generated during the high-temperature and high-pressure of the hot-press sintering process resulted in the grain coarsening phenomenon of the Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys after 1250°C hot-press sintering at 50 MPa for 1 h. In addition, the Cr-31.2 mass% Ti alloys were fabricated with the submicron-structured titanium (760 nm) and chromium (588 nm) powders showed more effective compaction than the micron-structured titanium (760 nm) and chromium (4.66 μm) powders did. The closed porosity decreases to 0.02% and the hardness values increase to 83.23 HRA. However, the agglomeration phenomenon of the Cr phase and brittleness of the TiCr2 Laves phases easily led to a slight decrease in TRS (400.54 MPa).
In this paper, explain the preparation of CaTiO3 ceramics synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. Calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide were high energy mixed in stoichiometric amounts, and the obtained mixture was calcined at different temperatures (800, 900, 1000 and 1300ºC) for 2 h. The obtained samples were characterized by measurement of particle size, Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Analysis; differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and SEM images. XRD patterns indicated that CaTiO3 ceramics with the structure of perovskite is obtained from calcined powders at 1,300°C for 2 h. SEM images show the formation of a very fine and homogeneous morphology. The measured values of electrical resistivity were within the typical range of insulating materials and approach values corresponding to insulating ceramics.
The present investigation has been made to assess the influence of B4C reinforced with Ti-6Al-4V matrix prepared by powder metallurgy route. High energy ball milling was used to prepare the composites. Cylindrical preforms were prepared using suitable die set assembly. The green preforms were sintered in the muffle furnace at 900°C for 1 h. Further the preforms were cooled inside the furnace till the room temperature has attained. SEM with EDS mapping analysis was used to evaluate the morphology and elemental confirmation of the prepared composite. The density and hardness of the samples are determined using Archimedes principle and Rockwell hardness testing machine. The wear resistance of the samples was determined by employing a pin on disc apparatus. The hardness of the composites (Ti-6Al-4V /10B4C) was increased while comparing to the base material (Ti-6Al-4V) which is attributed to the presence of hard ceramic phase. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) five level central composite design approach was accustomed and it minimised the amount of experimental conditions and developed mathematical models among the key process parameters namely wt. % of B4C, applied load and sliding distances to forecast the abrasive response of Specific Wear Rate (SWR) and Coefficient of Friction (CoF). Analysis of variance was used to check the validity of the developed model. The optimum parameters of specific wear rate and coefficient of friction were identified.
In this work, three ceramic composite coatings Al2O3-3TiO2 C, Al2O3-13TiO2 C, and Al2O3-13TiO2 N were plasma sprayed on steel substrates. They were deposited with two conventional powders differing the volume fraction of TiO2 and nanostructured powder. The mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings were investigated and compared. The increase in TiO2 content from 3 wt.% to 13 wt.% in the conventional feedstock improved the mechanical properties and abrasion resistance of coatings. However, the size of the used powder grains had a much stronger influence on the properties of deposited coatings than the content of the titania phase. The Al2O3-13TiO2 coating obtained from nanostructured powder revealed significantly better properties than that plasma sprayed using conventional powder, i.e. 22% higher microhardness, 19% lower friction coefficient, and over twice as good abrasive wear resistance. In turn, the Al2O3-13TiO2 conventional coating showed an increase in microhardness and abrasive wear resistance, 36% and 43%, respectively, and 6% higher coefficient of friction compared to the Al2O3-3TiO2 conventional coating.
The high-pressure torsion (HPT) of Ti-Fe alloys with different iron content has been studied at 7 GPa, 5 anvil rotations and rotation speed of 1 rpm. The alloys have been annealed before HPT in such a way that they contained different amounts of α/α' and β phases. In turn, the β phase contained different concentration of iron. The 5 anvil rotations correspond to the HPT steady-state and to the dynamic equilibrium between formation and annihilation of microstructure defects. HPT leads to the transformation of initial α/α' and β-phases into mixture of α and high-pressure ω-phase. The α → ω and β → ω phase transformations are martensitic, and certain orientation relationships exist between α and ω as well as β and ω phases. However, the composition of ω-phase is the same in all samples after HPT and does not depend on the composition of β-phase (which is different in different initial samples). Therefore, the martensitic (diffusionless) transformations are combined with a certain HPT-driven mass-transfer. We observed also that the structure and properties of phases (namely, α-Ti and ω-Ti) in the Ti – 2.2 wt. % Fe and Ti – 4 wt. % Fe alloys after HPT are equifinal and do not depend on the structure and properties of initial α'-Ti and β-Ti before HPT.