While considering the anthropological and sociological aspects of development of the historic city of Zamość , it is necessary to mention the elements of its residents’ life that brought intellectual values in the cultural space of the city entered in 1992 into the List of World Cultural Heritage. The paper has recalled a unique meeting place of the Zamość intelligentsia in the years 1957–2003 – the Ratuszowa café. It was located in the very heart of the city, in the Zamość Town Hall. The paper proves that it was not only a place of careless entertainment but of creative debate and work. It has also evoked memories of the “café life” and regular visitors to coffeehouses in Lviv, Krakow and Warsaw
The everyday life of residents of the big and small towns and villages is still in the centre of the permanent interests not only of scientific circles but also of local communities understood in the broadest sense. Being an important trade and academic centre of the Polish Republic of several cultures and confessions, the 17th-century town of Zamość is also an interesting subject of researches of various aspects of everyday life. In spite of the existence of many early elaborations, the problem in question still needs to be studied. Undertaking an attempt of making a reconstruction of fragments of the baroque Zamość ’ residents’ colourful everyday life, the author concentrates particularly on such aspects as ceremonies of the guilds or residents’ participation in religious ceremonies. He also analyzes daily squabbles and quarrels, attemps of their mitigations, minor and serious offenses, court judgments as well as ways of punishments. Since rumours indicating how information shaping a public opin- ion is spread, they seem to be an important element of everyday life too. A special place is also reserved for an entertainment; for it not only accompanies residents at different stages of their professional and social activities but also brings all of their affairs to an end. The article is based on a driary written in 1656–72 by Bazyli Rudomicz, a Zamość townsman and Professor of the Zamość Academy, and on other sources.
The article raises the issue of zoning of the central area of Zamosc based on downtown unrealized projects. It also explains the genesis of the formation of its range and the spatial layout, which affected the functioning of nineteenth-century fortress. As early as 1804. Entailer Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski planned to demolish the decaying fortifications and sell strip of land fortress for development. Change the situation on the political arena of Europe made Zamosc under Tsarist Russia became a fortress – a closed town, where civilian activity have been pushed to the back burner and separated from the historical center of strategic cordoned off the circuit. It was not until 24 years after the dissolution of the fortress, in 1880. returned to the development concept of post-fortress area in connection with the planned development of the city, but this met with opposition the military commission – the owner of the land. After regaining independence, the magistrate put forward ambitious building projects realization in the esplanade of the formerly fortress, which this time met with the resistance of the military commissions. As a result of the conversion of disputed land in the late 30’s the post-fortress area was possible to invest. An example was enacted in 1939, pioneering in many respects, zoning plan Zamosc by Władyslaw Wieczorkiewicza and Jan Zachwatowicz in which the authors called for implementation of the downtown on the basis of a linear array of bifocal between the old town (Stare Miasto) and the Nowa Osada suburb.
Applying the commonly accepted definitions of identity to landscape as our field of research, in particular landscape in protected areas, we assume that identity is the deepest relationship with the landscape (surroundings) perceived by man, with its historical layers of content (the culture and tradition of a place) and form (the canon of a place). An evaluation of change in time should be the keynote of deliberations on place identity. Basing on the current status of research, a review of specialist literature and the author’s experience to date, the above definitions and terms may be referenced to talk about “former” and “new” place identity, especially if we acquiesce to what is termed “the culture of a place” that originates in love for it and willingness to participate in the act of creation that has been launched upon the site. Author tries to explain this fenomenom on example of revitalization, on scale of conntry or even the Europe – the cultural – strategic landscape od Zamość Fortress.