The aim of the research was to analyze the possibility of using mobile laser scanning systems to acquire information for production and/or updating of a basic map and to propose a no-reference index of this accuracy assessment. Point clouds have been analyzed in terms of content of interpretation and geometric potential. For this purpose, the accuracy of point clouds with a georeference assigned to the base map objects was examined. In order to conduct reference measurements, a geodetic network was designed and also additional static laser scanning data has been used. The analysis of mobile laser scanning (MLS) data accuracy was conducted with the use of 395 check points. In the paper, application of the total Error of Position of the base-map Objects acquired with the use of MLS was proposed. Research results were related to reference total station measurements. The resulting error values indicate the possibility to use an MLS point cloud in order to accurately determine coordinates for individual objects for the purposes of standard surveying studies, e.g. for updating some elements of the base map content. Nevertheless, acquiring MLS point clouds with satisfying accuracy not always is possible, unless specific resolution condition is fulfilled. The paper presents results of accuracy evaluation in different classes of base-map elements and objects.
The objective of research concerned verifying the accuracy of the location and shape of selected lakes presented on topographical maps from various periods, drawn up on different scales. The area of research covered lakes situated in North- Western Poland on the Międzychód-Sieraków Lakeland . An analysis was performed of vector maps available in both analogue and digital format. The scales of these studies range from 1:50 000 to 1:10 000. The source materials were current for the years 1907 through 2013. The shape and location of lakes have been verified directly by means of field measurements performed using the GPS technology with an accuracy class of RTK. An analysis was performed of the location and shape of five lakes. The analysed water regions were vectorised, and their vector images were used to determine quantitative features: the area and length of the shoreline. Information concerning the analysed lakes obtained from the maps was verified on the basis of direct field measurements performed using a GPS RTK receiver. Use was made of georeferential corrections provided by the NAVGEO service or a virtual reference station generated by the ASG EUPOS system. A compilation of cartographic and field data formed the basis for a comparison of the actual area and the length of the shoreline of the studied lakes. Cartographic analyses made it possible to single out the most reliable cartographic sources, which could be used for the purposes of hydrographical analyses. The course of shorelines shows the attached map.
The TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement ( TanDEM-X) mission launched in 2010 is another programme – after the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in 2000 – that uses space-borne radar interferometry to build a global digital surface model. This article presents the accuracy assessment of the TanDEM-X intermediate Digital Elevation Model (IDEM) provided by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) under the project “Accuracy assessment of a Digital Elevation Model based on TanDEM-X data” for the southwestern territory of Poland. The study area included: open terrain, urban terrain and forested terrain. Based on a set of 17,498 reference points acquired by airborne laser scanning, the mean errors of average heights and standard deviations were calculated for areas with a terrain slope below 2 degrees, between 2 and 6 degrees and above 6 degrees. The absolute accuracy of the IDEM data for the analysed area, expressed as a root mean square error (Total RMSE), was 0.77 m.
This research presents comprehensive assessment of the precision castings quality made in the Replicast CS process. The evaluation was made based on quality of the surface layer, shape errors and the accuracy of the linear dimensions. Studies were carried out on the modern equipment, among other things a Zeiss Calypso measuring machine and profilometer were used. Obtained results allowed comparing lost wax process models and Replicast CS process.
The paper addresses the problem of the automatic distortion removal from images acquired with non-metric SLR camera equipped with prime lenses. From the photogrammetric point of view the following question arises: is the accuracy of distortion control data provided by the manufacturer for a certain lens model (not item) sufficient in order to achieve demanded accuracy? In order to obtain the reliable answer to the aforementioned problem the two kinds of tests were carried out for three lens models. Firstly the multi-variant camera calibration was conducted using the software providing full accuracy analysis. Secondly the accuracy analysis using check points took place. The check points were measured in the images resampled based on estimated distortion model or in distortion-free images simply acquired in the automatic distortion removal mode. The extensive conclusions regarding application of each calibration approach in practice are given. Finally the rules of applying automatic distortion removal in photogrammetric measurements are suggested
The paper presents the results of research on the possibilities of fixing ship position coordinates based on results of surveying bearings on navigational marks with the use of the CCD camera. Accuracy of the determination of ship position coordinates, expressed in terms of the mean error, was assumed to be the basic criterion of this estimation. The first part of the paper describes the method of the determination of the resolution and the mean error of the angle measurement, taken with a camera, and also the method of the determination of the mean error of position coordinates when two or more bearings were measured. There have been defined three software applications assigned for the development of navigational sea charts with accuracy areas mapped on. The second part contains the results of studying accuracy in fixing ship position coordinates, carried out in the Gulf of Gdansk, with the use of bearings taken obtained with the Rolleiflex and Sony cameras. The results are presented in a form of diagrams of the mean error of angle measurement, also in the form of navigational charts with accuracy fields mapped on. In the final part, basing on results obtained, the applicability of CCD cameras in automation of coastal navigation performance process is discussed.
A parcel is the most important object of real estate cadastre. Its primary spatial attribute are boundaries, determining the extent of property rights. Capturing the data on boundaries should be performed in the way ensuring sufficiently high accuracy and reliability. In recent years, as part of the project “ZSIN – Construction of Integrated Real Estate Information System – Stage I”, in the territories of the participating districts, actions were taken aimed at the modernization of the register of land and buildings. In many cases, this process was carried out basing on photogrammetric materials. Applicable regulations allow such a possibility. This paper, basing on the documentation from the National Geodetic and Cartographic Documentation Center and on the authors’ own surveys attempts to assess the applicability of the photogrammetric method to capture data on the boundaries of cadastral parcels. The scope of the research, most importantly, included the problem of accuracy with which it was possible to determine the position of a boundary point using photogrammetric surveys carried out on the terrain model created from processed aerial photographs. The article demonstrates the manner of recording this information in the cadastral database, as well as the resulting legal consequences. Moreover, the level of reliability of the entered values of the selected attributes of boundary points was assessed.
This paper presents decision-making risk estimation based on planimetric large-scale map data, which are data sets or databases which are useful for creating planimetric maps on scales of 1:5,000 or larger. The studies were conducted on four data sets of large-scale map data. Errors of map data were used for a risk assessment of decision-making about the localization of objects, e.g. for land-use planning in realization of investments. An analysis was performed for a large statistical sample set of shift vectors of control points, which were identified with the position errors of these points (errors of map data). In this paper, empirical cumulative distribution function models for decision-making risk assessment were established. The established models of the empirical cumulative distribution functions of shift vectors of control points involve polynomial equations. An evaluation of the compatibility degree of the polynomial with empirical data was stated by the convergence coefficient and by the indicator of the mean relative compatibility of model. The application of an empirical cumulative distribution function allows an estimation of the probability of the occurrence of position errors of points in a database. The estimated decision-making risk assessment is represented by the probability of the errors of points stored in the database
Both the growing number of dispersed generation plants and storage systems and the new roles and functions on the demand side (e.g. demand side management) are making the operation (monitoring and control) of electrical grids more complex, especially in distribution. This paper demonstrates how to integrate phasor measurements so that state estimation in a distribution grid profits optimally from the high accuracy of PMUs. Different measurement configurations consisting of conventional and synchronous mea- surement units, each with different fault tolerances for the quality of the calculated system state achieved, are analyzed and compared. Weighted least squares (WLS) algorithms for conventional, linear and hybrid state estimation provide the mathematical method used in this paper. A case study of an 18-bus test grid with real measured PMU data from a 110 kV distribution grid demonstrates the improving of the system’s state variable’s quality by using synchrophasors. The increased requirements, which are the prerequisite for the use of PMUs in the distribution grid, are identified by extensively analyzing the inaccuracy of measurement and subsequently employed to weight the measured quantities.
Power systems that are highly loaded, especially by a stochastic supply of renewables and the presence of storages, require dynamic measurements for their optimal control. Phasor measurement units (PMUs) can be used to capture electrical parameters of a power system. Standards on the PMU dynamic performance have been modified to incorporate their new dynamic mode of operation. This paper examines the PMU dynamic performance and proposes essential algorithms for measurement accuracy verification. Measurements of dynamic input signals, which vary in amplitude or frequency, were taken during automated tests of two PMUs. The test results are presented and expounded with further recommendation for the performance requirements. This paper also presents and examines applied testing procedures with relevance to the specifications of the IEEE Standard for Synchrophasor C37.118.1™-2011 and its amendment C37.118.1a™-2014.
Understanding the factors that influence the quality of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based products is a scientifically ongoing and relevant topic. Our research focused on the impact of the interior orientation parameters (IOPs) on the positional accuracy of points in a calibration field, identified and measured in an orthophoto and a point cloud. We established a calibration field consisting of 20 materialized points and 10 detailed points measured with high accuracy. Surveying missions with a fixed-wing UAV were carried out in three series. Several image blocks that differed in flight direction (along, across), flight altitude (70 m, 120 m), and IOPs (known or unknown values in the image-block adjustment) were composed. The analysis of the various scenarios indicated that fixed IOPs, computed from a good geometric composition, can especially improve vertical accuracy in comparison with self-calibration; an image block composed from two perpendicular flight directions can yield better results than an image block composed from a single flight direction.