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Number of results: 9
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Abstract

In the paper, the results of investigations on the properties of acoustic emission signals generated in a tested pressure vessel are presented. The investigations were performed by repeating several times the following procedure: an increase in pressure, maintaining a given pressure level, a further increase in pressure, and then maintaining the pressure at new determined level. During the tests the acoustic emission signals were recorded by the measuring system 8AE-PD with piezoelectric sensors D9241A. The used eight-channel measuring system 8AE-PD enables the monitoring, recording and then basic and advanced analysis of signals. The results of basic analysis carried out in domain of time and the results of advanced analysis carried out in the discrimination threshold domain of the recorded acoustic emission signals are presented in the paper. In the framework of the advanced analysis, results are described by the defined by the author descriptors with acronyms ADC, ADP and ADNC. Such description is based on identifying the properties of amplitude distributions of acoustic emission signals by assigning them the level of advancement. It is shown that for signals including continoues AE or single burst AE signals descriptions of such registered signals by means of ADC, ADP and ADNC descriptors and by Upp and Urms descriptors provide identical ordering of registered acoustic emission signals. For complex signals, the description using ADC, ADP and ADNC descriptors based on the analysis of amplitude distributions of recorded signals gives the order of signals with more accurate connection with deformational processes being sources of acoustic emission signals.
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Abstract

The condition monitoring techniques like acoustic emission, vibration analysis, and infrared thermography, used for the failure diagnosis of bearings, require longer processing time, as they have to perform acoustical measurement followed by signal processing and further analysis using special software. However, for any bearing, its period of usage can be easily determined within an hour, by measuring the bearing sound, using sound level meter (SLM). In this paper the acoustical analysis of the spindle bearing of a radial drilling machine was performed using SLM, by measuring the sound pressure level of the bearing in decibels, for different frequencies, while muting all the other noises. Then using an experimental set up, two database readings were taken, one for new bearing and the other for completely damaged bearing, both are SKF6207, which itself is the spindle bearing. From these three sets of sound pressure level readings, the period of usage of the spindle bearing, was calculated using an interpolation equation, by substituting the life of the bearing from the manufacturer’s catalogue. Therefore, for any machine with a SKF6207 bearing, its usage time can be estimated using the database readings and one measurement on that machine, all with the same speed.
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Abstract

In this study, music teachers' exposure to sound was tested by measuring the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (SPL), the A-weighted maximum SPL and the C-weighted peak SPL. Measurements were taken prior to and after acoustic treatment in four rooms during classes of trumpet, saxophone, French horn, trombone and percussion instruments. Results showed that acoustic treatment affects the exposure of music teachers to sound. Daily noise exposure levels (LEX, 8 h) for all teachers exceeded a limit of 85 dB while teaching music lessons prior to room treatment. It was found that the LEX, 8 h values ranged from 85.8 to 91.6 dB. The highest A-weighted maximum SPL and C-weighted peak SPL that music teachers were exposed to were observed with percussion instruments (LAmax = 110.4 dB and LCpeak = 138.0 dB). After the treatments, daily noise exposure level decreased by an average of 5.8, 3.2, 3.0, 4.2 and 4.5 dB, respectively, for the classes of trumpet, saxophone, French horn, trombone and drums, and did not exceed 85 dB in any case.
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Abstract

The Neumann boundary value problem for the Helmholtz equation within the quarter-space has been considered in this paper. The Green function has been used to find the acoustic pressure amplitude as the approximation valid within the Fraun-hoffer's zone for some time-harmonic steady state processes. The low fluid loading has been assumed and the acoustic attenuation has been neglected. It has also been assumed that the vibration velocity of the acoustic particles is small as compared with the sound velocity in the gaseous medium.
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Abstract

Acoustic radiation sources are successfully applied to cleaning rooms from dust of fairly large particle sizes (ten micrometers and larger). The sedimentation of fine aerosols (particle diameter of 1-10 microns) is a more complicated challenge. The paper is devoted to the substantiation of the acoustic sedimentation method for such aerosols. On the basis of the mathematical model analysis for aerosol sedimentation by the acoustic field the mechanisms of this process have been determined and include the particle coagulation acceleration and radiation pressure effect. The experimental results of the acoustic sedimentation of a model aerosol (NaCl) are shown. The calculation results according to the mathematical model for coagulation and sedimentation, on the basis of the Smolukhovsky’s equation taking into account various mechanisms of aerosol sedimentation by sound depending on the particle sizes and sound intensity, are given. The necessity to use intensive sources of high-frequency sound has been confirmed, suggesting that these sources must be located above dust clouds.
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Abstract

This work presents a simulation of the response of packets of microbubbles in an ultrasonic pulse-echo scan line. Rayleigh-Plesset equation has been used to predict the echo from numerically obtained radial dynamics of microbubbles. Varying the number of scattering microbubbles on the pulse wave form has been discussed. To improve microbubble-specific imaging at high frequencies, the subharmonic and second harmonic signals from individual microbubbles as well as microbubbles packets were simulated as a function of size and pressure. Two different modes of harmonic generation have been distinguished. The strength and bandwidth of the subharmonic component in the scattering spectrum of microbubbles is greater than that of the second harmonic. The pressure spectra provide quantitative and detailed information on the dynamic behaviour of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles packet.
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Abstract

Sound propagation from the vehicles moving on the city roundabout, with taking into account the wind is investigated. Solution of the problem for one moving sound source is found by means of the integral Fourier transforms extended over space variables and time. Inverse transforms are calculated approximately, using a stationary phase method and iterative technique. The solution for a general problem is obtained as a superposition of many partial solutions. The numerical analysis of noise characteristics is performed for the three-way Korfanty roundabout case in Łódź.
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Abstract

In many therapeutic applications of a pulsed focused ultrasound with various intensities the finite- amplitude acoustic waves propagate in water before penetrating into tissues and their local heating. Water is used as the matching, cooling and harmonics generating medium. In order to design ultrasonic probes for various therapeutic applications based on the local tissue heating induced in selected organs as well as to plan ultrasonic regimes of treatment a knowledge of pressure variations in pulsed focused nonlinear acoustic beams produced in layered media is necessary. The main objective of this work was to verify experimentally the applicability of the recently developed numerical model based on the Time- Averaged Wave Envelope (TAWE) approach (Wójcik et al., 2006) as an effective research tool for predicting the pulsed focused nonlinear fields produced in two-layer media comprising of water and tested materials (with attenuation arbitrarily dependent on frequency) by clinically relevant axially-symmetric therapeutic sources. First, the model was verified in water as a reference medium with known linear and nonlinear acoustic properties. The measurements in water were carried out at a 25◦C temperature using a 2.25 MHz circular focused (f/3.0) transducer with an effective diameter of 29 mm. The measurement results obtained for 8-cycle tone bursts with three different initial pressure amplitudes varied between 37 kPa and 113 kPa were compared with the numerical predictions obtained for the source boundary condition parameters determined experimentally. The comparison of the experimental results with those simulated numerically has shown that the model based on the TAWE approach predicts well both the spatial-peak and spatial-spectral pressure variations in the pulsed focused nonlinear beams produced by the transducer used in water for all excitation levels complying with the condition corresponding to weak or moderate source-pressure levels. Quantitative analysis of the simulated nonlinear beams from circular transducers with ka ≫ 1 allowed to show that the axial distance at which sudden accretion of the 2nd or higher harmonics amplitude appears is specific for this transducer regardless of the excitation level providing weak to moderate nonlinear fields. For the transducer used, the axial distance at which the 2nd harmonics amplitude suddenly begins to grow was found to be equal to 60 mm. Then, the model was verified experimentally for two-layer parallel media comprising of a 60-mm water layer and a 60-mm layer of 1.3-butanediol (99%, Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Steinheim, Germany). This medium was selected because of its tissue-mimicking acoustic properties and known nonlinearity parameter B/A. The measurements of both, the peak- and harmonic-pressure variations in the pulsed nonlinear acoustic beams produced in two-layer media (water/1.3-butanediol) were performed for the same source boundary conditions as in water. The measurement results were compared with those simulated numerically. The good agreement between the measured data and numerical calculations has shown that the model based on the TAWE approach is well suited to predict both the peak and harmonic pressure variations in the pulsed focused nonlinear sound beams produced in layered media by clinically relevant therapeutic sources. Finally, the pulsed focused nonlinear fields from the transducer used in two-layer media: water/castor oil, water/silicone oil (Dow Corning Ltd., Coventry, UK), water/human brain and water/pig liver were predicted for various values of the nonlinearity parameter of tested media.
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Abstract

The sound radiation from vehicles travelling on the city roads with T junction was considered. The wind effect on acoustic field was taken into account. The solution of this problem was found with the help of the integral Fourier transforms and stationary phase method as the superposition of solutions for the cases of vehicles moving along the straight roads and roads with right-angle bend. As an example, the numerical analysis of traffic noise characteristics was carried out for the T junction city road on one of streets in the town of Łodź (Poland).
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