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Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process that joins similar or dissimilar materials into application-oriented objects in a wide range of sizes and shapes. This article presents an overview of two additive manufacturing techniques; namely Laser metal deposition (LMD) and Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM). In LMD, metallic powders are contained in one or more chambers, which are then channelled through deposition nozzles. A laser heats the particles to produce metallic beads, which are deposited in layers with the aid of an in-built motion system. In WAAM, a high voltage electric arc functions as the heat source, which helps with ensuring deposition of materials, while materials in wire form are used for the feedstock. This article highlights some of the strengths and challenges that are offered by both processes. As part of the authors’ original research work, ­Ti-6Al-4V, Stainless steel 316L and Al-12Si were prepared using LMD, while the WAAM technique was used to prepare two Al alloys; Al-5356 and CuAl8Ni2. Microstructural analysis will focus on similarity and differences in grains that are formed in layers. This article will also offer an overall comparison on how these samples compare with other materials that have been prepared using LMD and WAAM.
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Abstract

The purpose of the present paper was to investigate the effect of shot peening on the condition of the surface layer and abrasion resistance of specimens made of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) process. The specimens have been produced by means of EOSINT M280 system dedicated for laser sintering of metal powders and their surfaces have been subjected to the shot peening process under three different working pressures (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 MPa) and by means of three different media i.e. CrNi steel shot, crushed nut shells and ceramic balls. The specimens have been subjected to profilometric analysis, to SEM examinations, microhardness tests and to tribological tests on ball-on-disc stand in Ringer fluid environment. The general results of all tests indicate to favourable effect of shot peening process on the hardness and tribological performance of titanium alloy.
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Abstract

In the present study, a titanium cellular lattice structure with a mathematical designed porosity gradient was successfully fabricated using the selective laser melting method. The samples with smooth gradient transition of porosity of between 60% and 80% were received for different elementary cell geometries. Elementary cells belong to the triply periodic minimal surfaces family (G, D, I2Y, IWP). Each sample was subjected to a comprehensive analysis including: dimensional metrology and assessment of material defects (X-ray micro-tomography), surface morphology tests (scanning electron microscopy) and mechanical properties (universal testing machine). It has been shown that a cellular lattice with high dimensional accuracy (+0.16/–0.08 mm) and full dense struts can be obtained. According to the assumption, the gradient increases the strength of the cellular lattice samples. The highest increase in plateau stress between the samples with and without gradient was found for the I2Y series (about 185%). Furthermore, it was found that the stress-strain response of the samples depends not only on total porosity, but also on the 3D geometry of the cellular lattice. The stress-strain curves for G, IWP and I2Y samples are smooth and exhibit three characteristic regions: linear elasticity, plateau region and densification region. The size of regions depends on the geometric features of the cellular lattice. For series D, in the plateau region, the fluctuations in stress value are clearly visible. The smoothest stress-strain curve can be noted for the G series, which combined with good mechanical properties (the plateau stress and energy absorbed, at respectively 25.5 and 43.2 MPa, and 46.3J and 59.5J for Gyr_80 and Gyr_6080, which corresponds to a strain of almost 65% and 50%) positively affects the applicability of cellular structures with such geometry.
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