Steel and cast-iron products, due to their low price and beneficial properties, are the most widely used among metals; their consumption has become an indicator of the economic development of countries. The characteristics of iron raw materials, in relation to current metallurgical requirements, are presented in the present this article. The globalization of the trade and development of steelmaking technologies have caused significant changes in the quality of raw materials in the last half-century forcing improvements in processing technologies. In many countries, standard concentrates (at least 60% Fe) are almost twice as rich as those processed in the mid-20th century. Methods of quality assessment have been improved and quality standards tightened. The quality requirements for the most important raw materials ‒ iron ores and concentrates, steel scrap, major alloy metals, coking coal, and coke, as well as gas and other energy media ‒ are reviewed in the present paper. Particular attention is paid to the quality testing methodology. The quality of many raw materials is evaluated multi-parametrically: both chemical and physical characteristics are important. Lower-quality parameters in raw materials equate to significantly lower prices obtained by suppliers in the market. The markets for these raw materials are diversified and governed by separate sets of newly introduced rules. Price benchmarks (e.g. for standard Australian metallurgical coal) or indices (for iron concentrates) apply. Some raw materials are quoted within the framework of the commodity market system (certain alloying components and steel scrap). The abandonment of the long-established system of multi-annual contracts has led to wide fluctuations in prices, which have reached a scale similar to that of other metals.
The present work focuses on the modeling and analysis of mechanical properties of structural steel. The effect of major alloying elements namely carbon, manganese and silicon has been investigated on mechanical properties of structural steel. Design of experiments is used to develop linear models for the responses namely Yield strength, Ultimate tensile strength and Elongation. The experiments have been conducted as per the full factorial design where all process variables are set at two levels. The main effect plots showed that the alloying elements Manganese and Silicon have positive contribution on Ultimate tensile strength and Yield strength. However, Carbon and Manganese showed more contribution as compared to Silicon. All three alloying elements are found to have negative contribution towards the response- Elongation. The present work is found to be useful to control the mechanical properties of structural steel by varying the major alloying elements. Minitab software has been used for statistical analysis. The linear regression models have been tested for the statistical adequacy by utilizing ANOVA and statistical significance test. Further, the prediction capability of the developed models is tested with the help of test cases. It is found that all linear regression models are found to be statistically adequate with good prediction capability. The work is useful to foundrymen to choose alloying elements composition to get desirable mechanical properties.
The sintered stainless steels of different microstructures (austenitic, ferritic and duplex) were laser surface alloyed with hard powders (SiC, Si3N4) and elemental alloying powders (Cr, FeCr, FeNi) to obtain a complex steel microstructure of improved properties. Laser surface alloying (LSA) involved different strategies of powder placing: the direct powder feeding to the molten metal pool and filling grooves machined on the sample surface by powder, and then laser surface melting. Obtained microstructures were characterised and summarised, basing on LOM, SEM and XRD analysis. The links between base material properties, like superficial hardness and microhardness, derived microstructures and erosion resistance was described. The LSA conditions and alloying powder placement strategies on erosion resistance was evaluated. The erosion wear is lower for Cr, FeCr, FeNi laser alloying, where powders were dissolved in the steel microstructure, and hard phases were not precipitated. Precipitations of hard phases (carbides, silicides, martensite formation) reduce erosion resistance of SiC alloyed stainless steel. The LSA with Si3N4 works better due to lack of precipitates and formation of a soft and ductile austenitic microstructure. The erosion wear at the impingement angle of 90° is high for hard and therefore brittle surface layers obtained as a result of alloying by hard particles (SiC, Si3N4). The softer and ductile austenitic stainless steel resist better than harder ferritic and duplex stainless steel material at studied erodent im pingement angle.
In this study, Taguchi method is used to find out the effect of micro alloying elements like vanadium, niobium and titanium on the hardness and tensile strength of the normalized cast steel. Based on this method, plan of experiments were made by using orthogonal arrays to acquire the data on hardness and tensile strength. The signal to noise ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used to investigate the effect of these micro alloying elements on these two mechanical properties of the micro alloyed normalized cast steel. The results indicated that in the micro alloyed normalized cast steel both these properties increases when compared to non-micro-alloyed normalized cast steel. The effect of niobium addition was found to be significantly higher to obtain higher hardness and tensile strength when compared to other micro alloying elements. The maximum hardness of 200HV and the maximum tensile strength of 780 N/mm2 were obtained in 0.05%Nb addition micro alloyed normalized cast steel. Micro-alloyed with niobium normalized cast steel have the finest and uniform microstructure and fine pearlite colonies distributed uniformly in the ferrite. The optimum condition to obtain higher hardness and tensile strength were determined. The results were verified with experiments.
In this work, the change of the structure and microhardness of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy after remelting and remelting with SiC alloing by electric arc welding (GTAW method) was studied. The current intensity equal 100 A and fixed scan speed rate equal 0,2 m/min has been used to remelting surface of the alloy. Change of structure were investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Microhardness test showed, that the remelting of the surface does not change the hardness of the alloy. Treated by GTAW SiC alloying leads to the formation of hard (570 HV0, 1) surface layer with a thickness of 2 mm. The resulting surface layer is characterized by diverse morphology alloyed zone. The fracture of alloy after conventional heat treatment, similarly to fracture after remelting with GTAW is characterized by extremely fine dimples of plastic deformation. In the alloyed specimens the intergranular and crystalline fracture was identified.
The wear behaviour of Cr3C2-25% NiCr laser alloyed nodular cast iron sample were analyzed using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The influence of sliding velocity, temperature and load on laser alloyed sample was focused and the microscopic images were used for metallurgical examination of the worn-out sites. Box-Behnken method was utilised to generate the mathematical model for the condition parameters. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based models are varied to analyse the process parameters interaction effects. Analysis of variance was used to analyse the developed model and the results showed that the laser alloyed sample leads to a minimum wear rate (0.6079×10–3 to 1.8570×10–3 mm3/m) and coefficient of friction (CoF) (0.43 to 0.53). From the test results, it was observed that the experimental results correlated well with the predicted results of the developed mathematical model.
Mg60Zn35Ca5 amorphous powder alloys were synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) technique. The results of the influence of high-energy ball-milling time on amorphization of the Mg60Zn35Ca5 elemental blend (intended for biomedical application) were presented in the study. The amorphization process was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Initial elemental powders were mechanically alloyed in a Spex 8000 high-energy ball mill at different milling times (from 3 to 24 h). Observation of the powder morphology after various stages of milling leads to the conclusion that with the increase of the milling time the size of the powder particles as well as the degree of aggregation change. The partially amorphous powders were obtained in the Mg60Zn35Ca5 alloy after milling for 13-18h. The results indicate that this technique is a powerful process for preparing Mg60Zn35Ca5 alloys with amorphous and nanocrystalline structure.
The main purpose of the present work was to validate the numerical model for the pulse-step liquid steel alloying method using a physical simulator that enables the observation and recording of phenomena occurring during the continuous steel casting process. The facility under investigation was a single-nozzle tundish equipped with a dam. To physical trials the glass water model was made on a scale of 2:5. For the mathematical description of turbulence during liquid steel alloying process, the k-ε and k-ω models were employed in the simulations. Based on the computer simulations and physical trials carried out, alloy addition behaviour and mixing curves for different tundish alloy addition feeding positions were obtained. The change in the location of alloy addition feeding to the liquid steel had an effect on the process of alloy addition spread in the liquid steel bulk and on the mixing time.
This work presents the project of the application of Case-based reasoning (CBR) methodology to an advisory system. This system should give an assistance by selection of proper alloying additives in order to obtain a material with predetermined mechanical properties. The considered material is silumin EN AC-46000 (hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy) that is modified by the addition of Cr, Mo, V and W elements in the range from 0% to 0.5% in the modified alloy. The projected system should indicate to the user the content of particular additives so that the obtained material is in the chosen range of parameters: tensile strength Rm, yield strength Rp0.2, elongation A and hardness HB. The CBR methodology solves new problems basing on the solutions of similar problems resolved in the past. The advantage of the CBR application is that the advisory system increases knowledge base as the subsequent use of the system. The presented design of the advisory system also considers issues related to the ergonomics of its operation.