The article presents the first pioneering attempt to shape the architectural form in the mountains on the basis of traditional architecture and its further evolution to neoregional modern form. Important here is capitalizing on the tradition and the search for new meeting methods of mountain architecture. This evolution should take place at different levels of development - from research on the forms of the original, by drawing on traditional solutions and prospecting for new solutions. In this methodology became famous Cracow design school in the landscape under the direction of Prof. Włodzimierz Gruszczyński and generations of his students, who in later years, despite the difficulties emphasized the seriousness of the debate on items subject.
The article presents the project and realization of Ivigna (in Merano, Italy) aerial cable car project designed by architect Roland Baldi. The boxed form has been boldly and confidently introduced into the surrounding mountains, despite distancing itself from standard references to genius loci of the natural landscape. This project presents an avant-garde, innovative and reliable approach to the composition of architecture in the context of a mountain landscape. Despite the severity of forms, a kind of architectural rhythm and lightness of shaping the object introduced in the context of an open space can be sense here. It is essential to seek new forms and technologies for communing with nature and culture, in order to shape interesting modernist architecture, entering the twenty-first century.
The essay presents an original application of using the coolhunting method to discover new trends in architecture and design. The ability to identify trends is tied in with the possibility of attaining an advantage over the competition with the use of new designs that can become hits on the market, gaining the favor of customers. The term coolhunting can be broadly defined as the pursuit of inspiration and the forecasting of the directions of development. Initially, the term was applied to fashion, but quickly spread to other spheres of activity, like music, the arts, lifestyle and finally, to architecture and design. The essay is a slightly altered and improved rendition of the author's article published in Zastosowania ergonomii. Wybrane kierunki badań ergonomicznych w roku 2014 . (ed. Charytonowicz J.), Publ. Polskie Towarzystwo Ergonomiczne PTErg, o/Wrocław, 2014, p. 289-304. The method outlined therein is the result of research conducted under the author's supervision at the Institute of Architecture and Spatial Planning of the Poznań University of Technology between the years 2012 and 2014.
Kabbalah and architecture, dealing with quite different domains, seem to have nothing in common. And yet they often intertwine, interact, and complement one another, sometimes leading to unexpected conclusions.
Hamburg with the quantity of about 18 mlns m2 is, alongside with Berlin and Munich, the biggest office centre in Germany. The large-scale planning and urban operations with the aim of location this function in the centre have been carried out since the beginning of the '60s. The policy of deployment the ofiice sites has beez modified since then, from isolating the monofunctional area of the Modernism's spirit, to multifunctional structures interplaying with the other sites when it comes to activities' potentiality with the expansion of the large-scale urban structures. Many recent realisations abound with significant buildings that bring the avant-garde approach to the idea of an office building. The high level of building technology and the importance of ecological aspects are the important distinction. The mentioned realizations has been noticed by the architectural critics and mentioned in professional press. The pride of place belongs to the works of BRT (Bothe-Richter-Teherani), that has created many innovatory office buildings.
The article presents the architectural heritage created as a part of the Central Industrial District in the context of the need for its preservation and protection. Presented are selected topics and problems associated with the current technical condition of both industrial and residential buildings. The analysis contain also the impact of modern conservation doctrines and their ability to preserve works of COP’s architecture with the specific conditions of ownership, poor awareness of users and owners, and a large shortage of historical planning sources.
Architecture is a discipline combining aesthetics with technology. This paper is focusing on the relationship between aesthetics and energy efficiency in architecture with special interest in solar collectors and photovoltaic panels as technological equipment of the buildings. The paper takes into consideration the present situation and architectural development in northern Poland, with some input basing on European experiences. The paper defi nes aesthetics and effi ciency in the field of architectural design as well as the use of public and urban spaces. Authors present also some case studies regarding the use of solar panels in selected architectural examples. The paper ends with summary and some conclusions including the need for further research in the field of architectural design, technology and product design, as well as the perception of urbanised spaces and the important field of economic and financial factors connected to the topic.
The paper gives an evidence that construction of contemporary objects at the interface with the historic urban space, may be a way to renew and revitalize areas which require it. Such action may be a strong and valuable catalyst for the functional and visual transformation of a given fragment of urban space. It can also contribute to the increase of social activity within it. Research shows that public facilities from the turn of the 20th and 21st century, which were built using innovative architectural technologies and constructional solutions, are the buildings which provide great opportunities to contrast with historical architecture. This can be achieved due to their significant scale and rank in the urban space. The analyzes show that design based on the principle of contrast is the right solution for the degraded historic urban space. The replenishment of the old tissue should be carried out with the emphasis on the identity of the times in which we live, without creating architecture which could literally imitate historical objects or compete with them. Because of this contrast and diversity, new fragments of the city can become a counterweight or a valuable background to the existing historical tissue. Contemporary buildings located in a historical context are not only enhancing the values of cultural heritage but can also become a grateful element of the urban space and a strong accent of modernity and innovation in the city.
The purpose of his paper is to present the modern or the artillery fortification as a special group of historical constructions with their determinants, as possible subjects of revitalization. The fortifications constitute a large group of architectural monuments in Poland. Because of their structural characteristics, they are objects diffi cult to maintain and manage, so they have remained in state of irreversible degradation for many decades. Due to the political and economic transformation in Poland, over recent decades the problem of chaotic and aggressive investment has arisen, which the fortifi cations are falling victims to. The text discusses the fortification as a part of the cultural heritage, the dichotomy between notions of “revitalization” and “revalorization”, and shows prospects of contemporary civil functioning and revitalization of the artillery fortifications.
In the article the question about the issue of beauty and energy in Polish architecture is considered in the context of experience in the design of buildings and housing estates collected in the last twenty years by the Warsaw studio Grupa 5 Architekci. The conceptual, urban and architectural assumptions are illustrated by three examples representative of different, key problem issues.
During the first fourteen years of transformation, 1989-2003, according to surveys by the author of the paper hereby, there have been erected in Kraków the twelve new churches. Author already published the result of survey depending the first six of therm. So herewith there are last six shrines described. The way of creating them is significant and characteristic for contemporary Polish architecture in general, and particular typical for the trend of a new ecclesiastic architecture. Itr is a special mixture of the tradition, hence completed with aesthetic of Late Modernism, Post-Modernism, and the newest incorporation of Modernism – of the XXI C.
An attempt has been made to present “continuity” which, despite artists’ denials, is a prerequisite for the creation of novelty. Subsequent movements and styles (trends today) in architecture have tried to deny the ideas and forms of their predecessors. Avant-garde art distances itself from any continuation. The original does not exist even in the modern world, let alone in post-modernity. The world is filled with shapes, colours and images of the past, unable to liberate itself from it. The artists are left with a false impression of their genius and originality. Looking at the buildings built today, one can discern the unbuilt architecture of the early twentieth century. This is by no means the accusation of lack of originality, but rather the realisation of a harsh fact that it is impossible to create complete novelty. It might have been easier for our predecessors without access to the Internet and the World Library of Imagination.
The concept of civil society does not cease to attract the attention of the media and that of politicians. It is being discussed over and over and viewed from every angle: political, national, social. We can ask ourselves the important question the, what is its influence on architecture and the aesthetics of our immediate surroundings? How can converting the homo sapiens into a citizens change our landscape? If it can, what is so special about architectural and urban design in a civil society which makes it different from those that we have now? Can we describe the aesthetics of a civil society? And finally, what are the relations between being a citizen and architecture, aesthetics and the landscape?
In the paper author discusses problems related to the leading role of architectural structures, as a part of the creating process within contemporary urban space. Architectural objects establish a continuous dialogue not only with their surrounding space, but also between each other. In this relation, the first plan comes with two factors, determining all spatial and functional solutions: the place in which a given project is localized and the time in which the urban designer came to the architect to create his plan. Based on the analysis of own projects and urban and architectural realizations, the author proves that the architectural dialogue in urban space must be respected in the context of the place and the time, but also in the creators moral responsibility. This responsibility is defined by consequences of design decisions not only for the urban space itself, but above all, for people and their coexistence with the space. For designers it reveals a necessity to comply principles of ethics and professing the value system in order to taking care of the urban space not only three-dimensional, but also “existential”.
Identity in a housing environment is one of its resources as valuable as its water, air, flora and fauna. The readability of identity should be the basic factor of the quality of architecture and landscape architecture recognizable as a significant resource. It is an important factor which influences the living standard of people who inhabit a given space from a psychological, social and cultural point of view. In order to care for identity, we must be aware of it, of its role and significance in our lives and residence in a given environment. Man must understand the phenomenon of the meaning of life with respect to its space as his place in the world. When we understand the all-embracing rhythm and taste of the life of a place of residence, we will comprehend life itself.
Conservation of the Old Town Zamość began to realize almost a hundred years ago. Then the eminent preachers of culture in the early period. 20.year inter-made idea of restoring the prestige of the works of Polish culture. The idea of protecting national cultural heritage grew gradually until such time as the first scientific research, development of standards and principles of care and maintenance. Today Zamość was inscribed on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. Many things made, much remains to be done.
The paper presents the meaning of complexity as a notion in psychology, and its influence on architectural theory in the 1960s, focusing on the notion of optimal complexity. A commentary is presented on the two texts („Network of straight lines” and „Limited complexity”) by professor architect Juliusz Żórawski from 1967, where he has introduced the term of limited complexity in relation to architecture, and where he criticizes excessively far reaching forecasts of future development. Żórawski’s concepts are parallel to those of R. Venturi at that time.
Shaping a space shouldn’t be an endless expansion of the built environemnt. New districts and new cities should be more than collections of houses, quickly produced and placed without any overarching concept. They should present streets, squares, axes, directions, as features of the area's composition. An ordered space is a sign of true modernity.
The paper discusses acoustic problems in the contemporary Catholic church, and presents a study of the influence of the ceiling structure on acoustics in the interior for two types of ceiling structures, i.e. the truss type and the reinforced concrete one. The investigations involved six contemporary churches: three buildings with a truss type ceiling and three buildings with a reinforced concrete ceiling. The results reveal that in churches with a truss type ceiling, acoustic parameters reach values close to recommendations. In contrast, churches with a concrete ceiling create very unfavourable acoustic conditions. The investigations rendered it possible to calculate the sound absorption coefficient α for the truss type cover.
The octagonal tower of the ruined castle Ojców (southern Poland) is considered one of the most impressive foundations of king Kasimir III the Great (†1370). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of archaeological dig carried out in 2016 and to combine it with written evidence to form the basis for the reconstruction of its long-gone past. The tower is an octagon in plan, has 11.55 m in diameter and has walls that are ca. 2.7-2.8 m thick. On the inside it is round, 6.2 m in diameter. It was built of carefully processed hewn limestone set in lime mortar and what is important to note, it is the only known castle tower realisation of king Kasimir which was built on such blocks. On the other hand, the raw material used for building the tower has close affinities with church foundations of the king (e.g. in the collegiate church in Wiślica). Noteworthy, the fieldwork of 2016 provided rich assemblage of architectural details, including stylistically homogenous window or portal framings with characteristic pear-shaped mouldings and hollow-chamferred profiles, which likely relate to the earliest stages of the castle, perhaps already to the realisation of king Kasimir. There is a high degree of confidence that these elements were originally placed in the tower, and, if so, they determined rich and representative design of the whole structure. According to the author of the paper, there are strong indications that the impressive octagonal tower which is distinguished among the other contemporary defensive realisations by its building material, size and, possibly, a decor, was built as a commemorative realisation, given to honour the memory of the father of king Kasimir – Władysław the Elbow-high, who according to the local tradition, early in the 14th c. found a refuge in a cave located nearby (note the castle’s name: Oczecz − further Ojców − in Polish means Father). Last but not least, the archaeological dig brought to light the remains of an undefined building from the late 15th-mid 16th c. west from the tower, the remains of post-medieval (17th c.?) wall adjacent to the tower from the north, and some important stratigraphic observations, which allow to state that the octagonal structure witnessed some extensive restoration work in the second half of the 15th c.
Architecture created in Poland of 21st C. is somewhere a mode of selfpresentation, in another cases is a method of shouting down the others. It is also aomwhere talking without any thesis, instead with a large dose of a badly understood assertiveness. Whe should to built a clear architectural activity, more objectified, and tied with a contemporaneity. We should begin from the most basic rules, from the certain architectural grammar. The identity can be understood as a set of features, which e.g. let to distinguish architecture growing out in Poland, in contrary to architecture rooted somewhere elsewhere. Those are not always any formal features. In order to understand what a spirit of the place really is, e.g. in ancient Rome there was an idea of the watchman spirit. This spirit gives life to the people and to the places, accompany them since they a born until they are dead. It determines their character or the content.
The never before published paper is one of the last writings of Juliusz Żórawski (1898–1967), professor architect and theoretician of architecture. The notion of limited complexity introduced here relates to individual characteristics of the conceptual abilities of man. Tasks of architecture are based on prognoses, and this brings with it the risk of making errors. The author criticises J. Fourastié’s prognoses related to the Earth’s overpopulation in 3000 AD, which would force building new cities above the ground, contrary to human psychosomatic nature and habitude.
The aim of the article is to present a Polish example of revitalization activities in the „recovered” areas in the city. The process described concerns the Garrison in Gdańsk Wrzeszcz. These areas were formerly occupied by the army, now for several years they have been carrying out construction works aimed at creating a comprehensive residential and service complex with a wide range of accompanying services. The revitalization of this area makes it possible to incorporate it into strongly urbanized city tissue. The location in the center of one of the main districts of the city, very good transport connections make it an attractive location for residents and entrepreneurs. The article refers to other implementations of this type of actions, stressing that the successful revitalization of the former military barracks in Gdańsk is to a relatively large extent carried out with respect for the existing historical tissue. The presented historical outline of the analyzed area makes it possible to get acquainted with its former character and its infl uence on contemporary design decisions. The methods of forming attractive urban spaces have been indicated.
Jesuits arrived in the land of the New Kingdom of Grande (Colombia) at the beginning of the 17th century. They founded colleges in all most important towns and began the mis-sionary service among Indians, according to the scheme of so-called ‘doctrinas’, i.e. villages inhabited by autochthons. During the years 1605-1660 they worked in a few doctrines on Altiplano in the surroundings of Bogota and Tunja and on eastern slopes of the Andes. Their service was usually very effective and carried out according to the established methodology of the missionary work. They were appealing to the following rules: systematic and regular religious education, knowledge of the local languages by missionaries, development of the educational system including study of the singing and the music, practising solemn liturgy based on solid and well equipped churches. The past experience of the work in ‘doctrinas’ was used in the second half of the 17th century during the establishment of Jesuits’ reductions in Casanare, Meta and Orinoko.
The article presents the problem of the settlements development in the Ojców National Park (ONP) and its buffer zone, both located in the suburban area of Cracow (Poland). The aim of the research was to recognize the social perception of this phenomenon, as well as the residents opinion about the limitations in spatial management related to the functioning of the Park. Interviews were made among 204 residents, and 40 representatives of local self-governments, cultural institutions, associations, administrators of tourist facilities and entrepreneurs. The local community perceives constraints in the new buildings construction and in enlargement or modernization of the existing ones as the main problem for people living in the ONP or its buffer zone. Driven by their particular interests, residents advocate the further development of the settlements and tourist infrastructure within the Park and the buffer zone, the liberalization of regulations, and even the liquidation of the Park’s buffer zone. They do not understand that the natural and landscape values (highly appreciated by them) can be degraded due to these activities.