One of the diffi culties of Slavic etymology which also occur in works devoted to the reconstruction of Proto-Slavic vocabulary, is the problem associated with distinguishing words, with an identical or similar sound, of native origin, and borrowings. The article considers four situations of this kind. The reconstruction of the allegedly Proto-Slavic word *kova one adduced the dialectal Croatian kȏva ‘quarry’, whereas it is a local phonetic variant of the well-attested noun kȃva ‘quarry; pit, trench; mine’, borrowed from the Italian (and Venetian) cava ‘quarry; mine; pit; cave rn’. Among the descendants of the Proto-Slavic *kojiti ‘to soothe, to alleviate’ one included the dialectal Croatian kojȉti ‘to wind a rope, to haul in a net’, whereas it is a fi shing term borrowed from the dialectal Italian coir ‘to wind a rope’; in this context one considered the dialectal Kajkavian Croatian kojiti ‘to breast-feed; to cultivate, to nourish’ (which heretofore was unfamiliar to Croatian scholarship), the actual descendant of the Proto-Slavic *kojiti. The dialectal Croatian lȕća ‘a lump of earth’ was said to be derived from the earlier *glut-ja from the Proto-Slavic *gluta ‘a dense lump of something; protuberance; knag’, whereas the geography indicates that it is more likely a Romance borrowing which is etymologically related to the Latin luteum ‘mud’. In this context one considered the Čakavian lȕća ‘skull’ and ‘a species of a nocturnal moth (death’s head hawkmoth, Acherontia atropos), which is probably related with this Romance borrowing. Apart from the unquestionable Proto-Slavic *klǫpь ‘bench’ one also reconstructed the proto-forms *klupь *klupa, whereas the Slavic words, which were supposed to indicate original forms featuring the root -u- are borrowings from German: Kashubian klëpa ‘a sandbank which protrudes above the sea level’ from the German Klippe ‘coastal rock’, Croatian klupa ‘an instrument which is used to measure the diameter of a tree trunk’ from the German Kluppe, which has the same meaning in the technical language.
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