The article presents the results of the research on the water samples taken from the Krakow water distribution system and their pollution by haloacetic acids: monochloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, bromochloroacetic acid and dibromoacetic acid. The water samples were taken from the extremities of the distribution systems (Raba and Bielany) in the city of Krakow. Both analyzed plants use the chlorination as the water treatment process, however, water for Raba and Bielany comes from different surface waters and differs in quality and organic matter concentration. These plants also apply different water treatment processes and their distribution systems have a different size. The objective of this study was to measure the haloacetic acids levels in these two water distribution systems, asses the correlation between the total trihalomethanes and the sum of six haloacetic acids, determine if trihalomethanes can be a good indicator to predict haloacetic acids concentration in water distribution systems.
In the processes of coal mining, preparation and combustion, the rejects and by-products are generated. These are, among others, the rejects from the coal washing and dry deshaling processes as well as the coal combustion by-products (fly ash and slag). Current legal and industry regulations recommend determining the content of mercury in them. The regulations also define the acceptable content of mercury. The aim of the paper was to determine the mercury content in the rejects derived from the coal cleaning processes as well as in the combustion by-products in respect of their utilization. The mercury content in the representative samples of the rejects derived from the coal washing and dry deshaling processes as well as in the coal combustion by products derived from 8 coal-fired boilers was determined. The mercury content in the rejects from the coal washing process varied from 54 to 245 μg/kg, (the average of 98 μg/kg) and in the rejects from the dry deshaling process it varied from 76 to 310 μg/kg (the average of 148 μg/kg). The mercury content in the fly ash varied from 70 to 1420 μg/kg, (the average of 567 μg/kg) and in the slag it varied from 8 to 58 μg/kg (the average of 21 μg/kg). At the moment, in light of the regulations from the point of view of mercury content in the rejects from the coal preparation processes and in the coal combustion by-products, there are no significant barriers determining the way of their utilization. Nevertheless, in the future, regulations limiting the maximum content of mercury as well as the acceptable amount of leachable mercury may be introduced. Therefore, preparing for this situation by developing other alternative methods of using the rejects and by-products is recommended.
The paper presents the results of experiments on the influence of the organic matter’s characteristics on the formation potential of water chlorination by-products – representatives of the following groups: trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate and chloropicrin. The products of water fractionation (the hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids, hydrophobic and hydrophilic bases, and hydrophobic and hydrophilic neutral fractions) were chlorinated with sodium hypochlorite. Its dose was adjusted to obtain a residual free chlorine concentration between 3 and 5 mg/dm3 after 24 h. After this time, the water chlorination by-products were analyzed with gas chromatography. The results’ analysis has defined the fractions, which have the highest potential to form particular groups of volatile organic water chlorination by-products.
Results of laboratory scale research have been presented on the effects of an oxidizing reactor on ozone consumption and by-producs composition and separation of simultaneous NOx and SO2 removal from a carrier gas by ozonation method and absorption in an alkaline solution. The additional Dreschel washer added before two washers containing 100 ml of 0.1 molar NaOH solution played the role of an oxidation reactor. Its effect was investigated using an empty (dry or wetted) or filled with packing elements washer. The measured by-products in a scrubber and in the oxidizing reactor were SO32-, SO42-, NO2- and NO3- ions, respectively. It has been shown that use of oxidizing reactor improves NOx removal efficiency reducing ozone consumption. Wetting of the oxidation reactor with water enables a preliminary separation of sulphur and nitrogen species between the oxidizing reactor and an alkaline absorber. Application of packing elements in the oxidizing reactor allows to retain 90% of nitrogen compounds in it. Some results were confirmed by tests in pilot scale.
The article concerns fly ashes generated from the combustion of hard coal and deposited on landfills. Investigation results describing fly ash taken from a combustion waste landfill are presented in the article. The investigation results indicate a possibility for combusting the coal reclaimed by separation from the fly ash and utilizing the remaining fly ash fractions.