This is the article about political issues in education. The aim of the text is to present the relations between politics and education. I try to find answer to question: what is the essence of politics of education? I claim that education is inherently political. Every dimension and form of educational practice are politically contested spaces. I try to show that politics in education is a very important part of democracy in education. Democracy is impossible without politics and politics is impossible without democracy. So, I focus on describing possible political areas in education. The paper presents results of these relations. I also try to convince the reader that it is possible (it is necessary) to create important, interesting thinking about education from political point of view.
Educational policy is a complex social phenomenon which both determines and is determined by political, socio-cultural, economic or demographic conditions. It is treated as deliberate activities of state and local authorities strictly related to educational practice. Therefore, each educational policy should be a planned activity which is based on a broader programme and which takes into account developmental strategies not only of education but also of the region or state. The period following the system transformation in Poland has involved numerous activities which – from teachers' perspective – have been treated as unexpected or even threatening their professional situation or the whole education. however, J. Rutkowiak emphasizes that relations between politics and pedagogy result from social engagement of both educationalists and teachers in politics and, thus, it is indispensable to treat politics as a dimension of their daily functioning at work . The following questions are raised: what are actual teachers' expectations from politicians and the educational policy? how do teachers assess the educational policy and situate it in their professional daily routine? Referring to Rutkowiak, is this policy a significant dimension of their daily functioning at work or a factor of unpredictable results which may appear at any time – the expected unexpected as the title suggests? what is presented in this study are some analyses of the data collected in the studies on educational policy and politicians, conducted among teachers in 2000–2014.
The aim of this paper is to reflect on the role of non-governmental organizations in contemporary cities. It is assumed that post-socialist cities are subjected to changes related to new models of citizenship as well as new models of urban social movements. First, a general picture of Polish non-governmental sector is presented. Next the idea of social movements in a post socialist city is given. The following part presents the idea of NGO as agents of a social change.Th e notions of social conflict, common good and a collective identity are used. The paper sums up with conclusions and a demand to built coalitions between different social actors.