A large number of infrastructural concrete buildings are protected against aggressive environments by coating systems. The functionality of these coating systems is mainly affected by the composition and thickness of the individual polymeric layers. For the first time ever, a mobile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensor allows a non-destructive determination of these important parameters on the building site. However, before this technique can be used on steel-reinforced concrete elements, the potential effect of the reinforcement on the measurement, i.e. the NMR signal, needs to be studied. The results show a shift of the NMR profile as well as an increase of the signals amplitude in the case of the reinforced samples, while calculating the thickness of concrete coating leading to identical results.
This article presents measurements of the thickness of alcohol-based coatings on sand foundry cores and moulds. These coatings were applied using two methods, the dipping method and the painting method. For the purposes of the study, a zircon alcohol-based coating was prepared with three different levels of nominal viscosity; very thin at 10s, average at 20s, and thick at 30s. The coating was applied to a core made of quartz sand and furan resin. The cores were made of sand with three different grain sizes; dL = 0.22 mm – fine sand, dL = 0.33 mm medium sand, and dL = 0.47 mm coarse sand. In the study, the thickness of the coating obtained to the core was measured immediately after application as well as after drying. Additionally, the extent of penetration into the intergranular spaces of the core matrix was measured. On the basis of this study, the impact of the grain size of the core matrix on the thickness of the coating and its penetration into the core was assessed. The thickness of coatings obtained using different application methods was also assessed.
The paper discusses the results of investigations of material, tribological and anti-corrosion properties of hybrid coatings of the Cr/CrN type, consisting of chromium and chromium nitride, formed on the surface of alloy tool steel by the Arc-PVD method. Investigations of the morphology and microstructure of hybrid coatings, as well as of their phase composition were carried out. The studies on mechanical properties included tests on hardness and Young’s modulus using the nanoindentation method. Tests on adhesion were conducted using the scratch-test method. Tribological properties of the obtained coatings were evaluated by the pin-on-disc method. Resistance to corrosion was determined by electrochemical methods. It was shown that hybrid coatings of the Cr/CrN type are characterized by good adhesion to the substrate and very good tribological properties, as well as by very good resistance to corrosion in a solution containing chlorine ions.
The objective of the research in this work was the modification of structure of carbide-type chromized layers, by the combination of diffusion chromizing with subsequent PVD treatment, consisting of chromium nitride deposition, carried out to improve their tribological properties. As a result, hybrid layers on the surface of tool steel were obtained. For comparison, the properties of single chromized carbide layers obtained in a diffusion chromizing process were tested. Investigations of layer microstructure, their mechanical properties, surface topography, adhesion of layers to the steel substrate, as well as tribological properties were conducted. The layer microstructure was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Topography of the layer surface was studied by an optical profilometer. The scratch test for investigations of layers adhesion to the steel substrate was used. Testing of tribological properties (linear wear) of the layers was performed by the three-cylinder-cone method. It was shown, that hybrid layers are characterized by a significantly smaller surface roughness than that of chromized carbide layers and their wear resistance improved almost twice with respect to carbide layers.
Anti-condensation coatings are widely used in refrigeration, air conditioning and ships technology. They can store a certain amount of water in its own volume, and then return it back in favorable conditions. Anti-condensation coatings are used also to protect structures from the moisture. This paper presents the results of experimental research on heat and mass transfer in an anti-condensation coating under natural and forced convection. Experimental results are obtained for horizontal and inclined plates. Experimental data are compared with different models of computation.
An analysis of the effect of drawing speed on the formation of a zinc coating in the multi-stage fine steel wire drawing process has been carried out in the article. Pre-hardened 2.2 mm-diameter material was drawn into 1.00 mm-diameter wire in 6 draws on a multi-stage drawing machine. The drawing process was carried out at a drawing speed of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 20 m/s, respectively. Mechanical tests were tests were performed for the final wires to determine their yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform and total elongation and reduction in area. The thickness of the zinc coating on the wire surface was determined by the gravimetric method and based on metallographic examination. The use of electron scanning microscopy, on the other hand, enabled the identification of individual phases in the zinc coating. The above investigations were supplemented with corrosion testing of 1.00 mm-diameter wires. It has been demonstrated that drawing speed significantly influences not only the thickness of the zinc coating on the drawn wire surface, buts also its morphology and corrosion resistance.
The influence of the refractory coating which is a mixture of silica flour and kaolin on the surface roughness of the plate castings produced using evaporative patterns had been considered in this work. The kaolin was used as a binder and ratio method was employed to form basis for the factorial design of experiment which led to nine runs of experiments. Methyl alcohol at 99% concentration was used as the carrier for the transfer of the coating to the surface of the patterns. Pouring temperature was observed as a process parameter alongside the mix ratios of the coating. Attempts were made to characterize the refractory coating by using two methods; differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction. Attempt was also made to characterize the casting material. Gating system design was done for the plate casting to determine the correct proportions of the gating parameters in order to construct the gating system properly to avoid turbulence during pouring of liquid metal. A digital profilometer was used to take the measurements of the surface roughness. It was observed that the mix ratio 90% silica flour-10% kaolin produced the lowest value of the surface roughness of the plate castings and had the lowest material loss in the DTA test. The pouring temperature of 650o C produced best casting.
Porous metals show not only extremely low density, but also excellent physical, mechanical and acoustic properties. In this study, Hastelloy powders prepared by gas atomization are used to manufacture 3D geometries of Hastelloy porous metal with above 90% porosity using electrostatic powder coating process. In order to control pore size and porosity, foam is sintered at 1200~1300°C and different powder coating amount. The pore properties are evaluated using SEM and Archimedes method. As powder coating amount and sintering temperature increased, porosity is decreased from 96.4 to 94.4%. And foam density is increased from 0.323 to 0.497 g/cm3 and pore size is decreased from 98 to 560 μm. When the sintering temperature is increased, foam thickness and strut thickness are decreased from 9.85 to 8.13mm and from 366 to 292 μm.
The subject of this paper was to compare the influence of selected coatings on bending strength of moulds and cores manufactured in a furan technology. In a range of study, there were used three kinds of coatings - water based coating and two kind of alcohol based coating manufactured by FOSECO. Coating were applicated by brush, overpouring/flow and spraying. For each application method, there were realized different kind of drying- at ambient temperature, in a furnace and by burning. Physicochemical properties of coatings were such selected to accommodate them to the application method and type of coating. Based on the conducted studies it was observed that for water based coating application method doesn’t have an important influence on bending strength and it is necessary to optimize the time and temperature of drying to achieve better results of bending strength. For alcohol based coatings, drying by burning causes significant deterioration of bending strength of the mould and core and drying process at ambient allows to obtain high bending strength of mould/cores in regard to time of drying.
Detection and identification of toxic environmental gases have assumed paramount importance precisely in the defense, industrial and civilian security sector. Numerous methods have been developed for the sensing of toxic gases in the environment ever since surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology came into existence. Such SAW sensors called electronic nose (E-Nose) sensor use the frequency response of a delay line/resonator. SAW device is focused and given importance. The selective coating between input and output interdigital transducers (IDTs) in the SAW device is responsible for corresponding changes in operating frequency of the device for a specific gas/vapour absorbed from the environment. A suitable combination of well-designed SAW delay lines with selective coatings not only help to improve sensor sensitivity and selectivity but also leads to the minimization of false frequency alarms in the E-Nose sensor. This article presents a comprehensive review of design, development, simulation and modelling of a SAW sensor for potential sensing of toxic environmental gases.
Noise diagnostics has been performed on the cold field-emission cathode in high-vacuum. The tested cold field-emission cathode, based on tungsten wire with ultra-sharp tip coated by epoxy was designed to meet the requirements of transmission electron microscopy, which uses a small and stable source of electrons. Current fluctuations are reduced by improving the structure and fabrication technology. Noise was measured both in time and frequency domains, which gives information about current fluctuations and also about charge transport. Mutual correlation between the noise spectral density, extractor voltage and beam brightness was analyzed.
The proper interaction of bone tissue - the natural porous biomaterial - with a porous coated intra-osseous implant is conditioned, among others, by the implant porous coating poroaccessibility for bone tissue adaptive ingrowth. The poroaccessibility is the ability of implant porous coating outer layer to accommodate the ingrowing bone tissue filling in its pore space and effective new formed bone mineralizing in the pores to form a biomechanically functional bone-implant fixation. The functional features of the microtopography of intra-osseous implant porous surfaces together with the porosity of pore space of the outer layer of the porous coating are called by bioengineers the porostructural-osteoconductive properties of the porous coated implant. The properties are crucial for successful adaptive bone tissue ingrowth and further long-term (secondary) biomechanical stability of the boneimplant interface. The poroaccessibility of intra-osseous implants porous coating outer layers is characterized by - the introduced in our previous papers - set of stereometric parameters of poroaccessibility: the effective volumetric porosity fVef, the index of the porous coating space capacity VPM, the representative surface porosity fSrep, the representative pore size pSrep, the representative angle of the poroaccessibility Wrep and the bone-implant interface adhesive surface enlargement index y. Presented in this paper, an original method of evaluation of the porostructural-osteoconductive properties of intra-osseous implant porous coatings outer layer by means of the parameters of poroaccessibility was preliminary verified during experimental tests performed on the representative examples of porous coated femoral stems and acetabular cups of various hip endoprostheses. The computer-aided stereometric evaluation of the microstructure of implant porous coatings outer layer can be now realized by the authoring application software PoroAccess_1.0 elaborated in our research team in Java programming language
The influence of the electrode geometry on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of Co-Mo nano-crystalline coatings elaborated by electrodeposition is studied. The corrosion behaviour was determined in the Ringer’s solution at 25°C. Electrodeposition mechanisms are also discussed as a function of the electrode geometry. The electrode geometry was found to affect the growth rate and, under certain conditions, the microstructure (existence of channels and pores). It does not have influence on the corrosion behaviour.
The influence on the corrosion behaviour of Co-Mo nano-crystalline coatings of dissolved oxygen is studied in the Ringer’s solution and artificial saliva at 25°C. This was done by means of potentiodynamic tests and surface observations. It was shown that dissolved oxygen has no influence on passivity, oxidation of the coating and selective dissolution of cobalt. By contrast, dissolved oxygen affects corrosion. General corrosion was observed in the Ringer’s solution whereas pitting corrosion was found in artificial saliva.
This paper analyses the heat treatment of the hot-dip zinc coating deposited on both cast iron and steel. The aim of research is to increase coating hardness and wear resistance without decreasing its anticorrosion properties. Hot-dip zinc coating was deposited in industrial conditions (acc. PN-EN ISO 10684) on disc shape samples and bolts M12x60. The achieved results were assessed on the basis of microscopic observation (with the use of an optical and scanning microscope), EDS (point and linear) analysis and micro-hardness measurements. It was discovered that the heat treatment of zinc coating results in an increase in hardness which is caused by the corresponding changes in microstructure.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is one of the most widely used solid lubricants applied in different ways on the surfaces under friction. In this work, AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel was coated with MoS2, using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at four different temperatures (400, 500, 600 and 700°C). Coatings properties were investigated using SEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR, Hardness Tester and Roughness tester. The results showed that with simultaneous evaporation of sulfur and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) in the CVD chamber, a uniform coating layer containing MoS2 and MoO2 phases was formed. Increase in the substrate temperature resulted in the rise in the amount of MoS2 to MoO2 phases. The thickness, grain size and the hardness of the coating were 17-29 μm, 50-120 nm and 260-480 HV respectively. Friction tests carried out using pin-on-plate method under normal loads of 10 N under ambient conditions showed values of the friction coefficient 0.25-0.40.
Pulsed laser deposition technique was applied for covering elastic cast-polyurethane membranes with titanium nitride and boron nitride layers. The deposition process was realized using a Nd:YAG laser with Qswitch in stages; firstly the membranes were coated with ultra-thin titanium nitride layer (TixN) by evaporation of a metallic titanium disk in nitrogen gas atmosphere and then a layer of boron nitride (BN) was deposited by ablation of hexagonal h-BN target in argon atmosphere. The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Chemical composition was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The phase analysis was performed by means of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. The crystallographic texture was measured. The wear test was performed by pin-on-disk method. Hexagonal boron nitride layers with (0001)[uvtw] texture with flake-like grains were fabricated. The structure and texture of boron nitride was identical irrespectively of substrate roughness or BN thickness. Pin-on-disk wear tests showed that the coatings effectively decreased the friction coefficient from two to even four times comparing to pure polyurethane and polyurethane covered with graphite. This proved that deposited layers can replace graphite as a lubricating material used to protect polymer surfaces.
A short literature survey which justifies coating of ceramic cutting inserts is presented. The results reported are on selected nitride coatings, in particular nanoscale multilayer, with layers of type Ti-Zr-N, TiN, ZrN and (TiAl)N, deposited by the arc PVD method on oxidecarbide ceramic cutting inserts of type TACN and TW2 produced at the Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. Measurements and quality assessments were made, including of thickness of the coatings and of their constituent micro and nanolayers, microhardness of the coating and of the substrate, surface roughness of the inserts and of the cylindrical workpieces turned with these tools. Lifetimes of the coated and uncoated inserts were compared in turning an alloy tool steel. A significant increase in lifetime of the coated TW2 cutting tools was shown.
Studies were conducted on a zinc coating produced on the surface of ductile iron grade EN-GJS-500-7 to determine the eutectic grain effect. For this purpose, castings with a wall thickness of 5 to 30 mm were made and the resulting structure was examined. To obtain a homogeneous metal matrix, samples were subjected to a ferritising annealing treatment. To enlarge the reaction surface, the top layer was removed from casting by machining. Then hot dip galvanising treatment was performed at 450°C to capture the kinetics of growth of the zinc coating (in the period from 60 to 600 seconds). Analysing the test results it was found that within the same time of hot dip galvanising, the differences in the resulting zinc coating thickness on samples taken from castings with different wall cross-sections were small but could, particularly for shorter times of treatment, reduce the continuity of the alloyed layer of the zinc coating.
The work presents the analysis results of the structure of the coat obtained by dipping in silumin AlSi5 of two grades of alloy cast steel: GX6CrNiTi18-10 (LH18N9T) and GX39Cr13 (LH14). The temperature of the silumin bath was 750±5°C, and the hold-up time of the cast steel element τ = 180 s. The absolute thickness of the coat obtained in the given conditions was g = 104 μm on cast steel GX6CrNiTi18-10 and g = 132 μm on GX39Cr13. The obtained coat consisted of three layers of different phase structure. The first layer from the base “g1`” was constructed of the phase AlFe including Si and alloy additives of the tested cast steel grades: Cr and Ni (GX6CrNiTi18-10) and Cr (GX39Cr13). The second layer “g1``” of intermetallic phases AlFe which also contains Si and Cr crystallizes on it. The last, external layer “g2” of the coat consists of the silumin containing the intermetallic phases AlFeSi which additionally can contain alloy additives of the cast steel. It was shown that there were no carbides on the coat of the tested cast steels which are the component of their microstructure, as it took place in the case of the coat on the high speed steels.
The paper deals with the issue of potential for improvement of resistance of wood chip fine grinders to abrasive wear by providing them with WCCoCr coating applied with the use of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The study focused on establishing parameters of the technological process of spraying a 250–270 μm thick coating onto surface of ductile cast iron castings used to date as grinder linings. The presented data include results of microstructure examination, chemical composition analysis, HV hardness measurements, and scratch tests for both previous and new variant of linings. The obtained scratch test results indicate that the material of the coating is characterized with definitely lower susceptibility to scratching. The scratch made on coating was 75–84 μm wide and 7.2–8.2 μm deep, while the scratch on cast iron was distinctly wider (200–220 μm) and deeper (8.5–12.8 μm). In case of cast iron, the range of variability in scratch width and depth was definitely larger. This can be explained with large difference in hardness of individual components of microstructure of cast iron and significantly larger plastic deformation of cast iron compared to the coating revealed in the course of indenter motion over surfaces of the two materials. It has been found that application of WCCoCr coating offered better resistance of lining surfaces to scratching which can be considered a rationale for undertaking in-service tests.
The paper discusses the possibility of improving resistance of heat exchangers made of gray cast iron with flake graphite to hightemperature corrosion by providing them with metallic coatings. A metallic coating containing 76.9% Ni, 19.8% Cr, 1.7% Si, 0.9% Fe, and 0.9% Mn was applied by means of the plasma spraying method and subjected to cyclically variable thermal loads in the atmosphere of solid fuels combustion products (oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and sodium). In a 30-day thermal load test held at temperature 500°C it has been found that thickness of the metallic coating decreased from the initial (240 ± 6) μm to (231 ± 6) μm. The depth to which sulfur, chlorine, and sodium penetrated the coating was about 30 μm. Increased oxygen content occurred along the whole coating depth. In the coating area adjacent to the substrate surface, the content was twice as high compared to this observed in the initial coating material. Although presence of oxygen was found within the whole depth of the coating, i.e. (231 ± 6) μm, no signs of susceptibility of the sprayed metallic layer to separation from substrate of gray cast iron with flake graphite were found.
Al-4.5Cu alloys are widely used in aerospace industries due to their low weight and high mechanical properties. This group of aluminium alloys is known as 2xx series and exhibits the highest mechanical properties however this alloy is known to suffer from feedability and high tendency for hot tearing. Al-Si alloys (3xx) have improved fluidity and better feedability particularly by several modifications such as Ti, B or Sr. Eutectic temperature is decreased and mechanical properties can be enhanced. Yet, the strength values of this alloy group cannot reach the values of 2xx series. Therefore, in this study, the effect of Ag addition on the fluidity of Al-4.5Cu alloy has been investigated. Standard size spiral mould was used. The casting temperature was selected to be 770oC. Five castings were made and Weibull statistical approach was used to evaluate the results. In addition, coating of the die with BN was also investigated. It was found that Ag addition and BN coating of the die revealed the most reproducible, reliable and high fluidity values.
The article presents analysis of the influence of ingate size on the Lost Foam casting process. In particular, analysis of simulation tests has been carried out to determine the ingate size influence on the rate of filling of the mould cavity, pressure in the gas gap and size of the gas gap. A specially prepared mathematical model of the process and an original calculation algorithm were used in simulation tests of full-mould casting. The tests have indicated that the increase of the ingate size results in the increase of filling rate and increase of pressure of gases in the gas gap. However, significant influence on mould cavity filling occurs only when the ingate size is less than ~1 cm2. .