The paper reports the study of the complexation processes in aqueous solution of α-CD and DMSO. Cyclodextrins (CDs) (sometimes called cycloamyloses) are cyclic oligosaccharides formed by glucose units interconnected by α-(1,4) linkages; α-CD is one of three the most common CDs. It consists of six glucopyranose units. The speed of ultrasonic waves has been measured by the resonance method on ResoscanTM System apparatus. Some collateral data, such as density and heat capacity of the system, have also been measured. On the basis of the experimental data the excess adiabatic compressibility was determined. The extremes of the excess adiabatic compressibility function for different mixture compositions allowed us to establish the composition of molecular complexes formed in the solution. The obtained results suggest the formation of the α-CD with DMSO inclusion complexes with chemical stoichiometric ratio value of 1:1.
This paper is an attempt to explain the concept of emergence of spatial systems. It indicates basic features of this concept, such as: coevolution, selforganization, patterns, sudden changes, hierarchy. The emergence of complex systems is very fruitful approach to the theoretical reconstruction of the processes of space economy. It should be included in the discussion on evolutionary economics and geography. Recently, in both disciplines creative research is carried out on this subject matter.
The aim of this paper is to analyse various animal-specifi c complex lexical units together with patterns that can be held responsible for their underlying conceptual structure. Many examples of the data investigated in the paper seem to represent compounds as they are traditionally understood in the literature of the subject (see, among others, Bauer 2003; Katamba and Stonham 2006; Lieber and Štekauer 2009; Fàbregas and Scalise 2012; Bauer et al. 2013); however, others do not meet the basic criteria for compoundhood as postulated by, for example, Altakhaineh (2016). In my research I use the term animal-specifi c complex lexical units with reference to all animal-related composite expressions being the result of the working of metaphor-metonymy interaction.
This paper presents a set of concepts aiming at the reconstruction of mechanisms of the development of economic space. These concepts are ordered in the way that consecutive concepts add new pieces of knowledge increasing the degree of cognition of the mechanisms of economic space. This set includes among others: shift from one steady-state to the next steady-states, selforganization and the development out of equilibrium, multiple equilibrium, punctuated equilibrium, innovation in the phase transition, pulsative course of development process, emergence of complex spatial systems, development code of the system of regions.