Statistical conformity criteria for the compressive strength of concrete are a matter of debate. The criteria can have prejudicial effects on construction quality and reliability. Hence, the usefulness of statistical criteria for the small sample size n = 3 is questioned. These defects can cause a reduction in the quality of produced concrete and, consequently, too much risk for the recipient (investor). For this reason, the influence of conformity control on the value of the reliability index of concrete and reinforced concrete has been determined. The authors limited their consideration to the recommended standards PN-EN 206-1, PN-EN 1992 and ISO 2394 method of reliability index, which belongs to the analytical methods FORM (First Order Reliability Method). It assumes that the random variables are defined by two parameters of the normal distribution or an equivalent normal: the mean and the standard deviation. The impact of conformity control for n = 3 for concrete structures, designed according to the Eurocode 1992, for which the compressive strength of concrete is the capacity dominant parameter (sensitivity factor of dominating resistance parameter according to the FORM is 0.8), has been determined by evaluation of the reliability index.
The aim of this paper is to present an assessment of the slip influence on the deflection of the steel plate-concrete composite beams, which are a new type of a design concept. The proposed method is based on the procedure included in the PN-EN 1992-1-1, which has been modified with taking into consideration interface slip. The theoretical analysis was verified by experimental studies.
An automated method for crack identification and quantitative description of crack systems in concrete was developed in order to aid a service life assessment of concrete elements in structures. Flat polished specimens for crack analysis were impregnated with epoxy resin containing fluorescent dye. The examination of the crack system was performed in ultraviolet light using a stereomicroscope and an Image Pro Plus image analysis system on specimens cored out of several concrete structures. The laboratory tests were performed on cast specimens to establish correlations between water penetration and chloride diffusion and crack system parameters. The analysis of cracks in concrete cores taken from structures resulted in interesting conclusions based on the crack width distribution and crack localization with respect to steel reinforcement. The method was found very effective to support standard concrete diagnostics methods.
The paper focuses on different approaches to the safety assessment of concrete structures designed using nonlinear analysis. The method based on the concept of partial factors recommended by Eurocodes, and methods proposed by M. Holicky, and by the author of this paper are presented, discussed and illustrated on a numerical example. Global safety analysis by M. Holicky needs estimation of the resistance coefficient of variation from the mean and characteristic values of resistance, and requires two separate nonlinear analyses. The reliability index value and the sensitivity factor for resistance should be also identified. In the method proposed in this paper, the resistance coefficient of variation necessary to calculate the characteristic value of resistance may be adopted from test results and the resultant partial factor for materials properties, and may be calculated according to Eurocodes. Thus, only one nonlinear analysis from mean values of reinforcing steel and concrete is required.
The purpose of this work is to distinguish between Acoustic Emission (AE) signals coming from mechanical friction and AE signals coming from concrete cracking, recorded during fourteen seismic simulations conducted with the shaking table of the University of Granada on a reinforced concrete slab supported on four steel columns. To this end, a particular criterion is established based on the Root Mean Square of the AE waveforms calculated in two different temporal windows. This criterion includes a parameter calculated by optimizing the correlation between the mechanical energy dissipated by the specimen (calculated by means of measurements with accelerometers and displacement transducers) and the energy obtained from the AE signals recorded by low-frequency piezoelectric sensors located on the specimen. The final goal of this project, initiated four years ago, is to provide a reliable evaluation of the level of damage of Reinforced Concrete specimens by means of AE signals to be used in future Structural Health Monitoring strategies involving RC structures.
This paper presents the possibility to apply numerical simulation in static analysis of reinforcedconcrete structure strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer composite strips (CFRP).Reinforced concrete beams, with strengthening in form values CFRP made of carbon fibres andepoxy resin, featuring various width, as well as non-strengthened bent beams, were analysed. Thesimply supported beams arranged in a free support scheme were subjected to two concentratedforces within full range of loading (until collapse). The numerical analysis was performed throughapplication of the Finite Elements Method (FEM), and the calculation model applied took intoaccount the geometric and physical nonlinearity. The problem was solved by application of thequasi-staticstrategy method of calculations using ABAQUS software. While analysing the results,we focused on the run of changes in structure displacement and development of material damage,up to the point of destruction of the beam.
Reinforced concrete composite slab consists of a thin prefabricated slab in which span reinforcement is located and of concrete joined with the slab, with such concrete being laid on site. The existence of a joint of two concretes in such floors is interpreted as introducing a contact layer into a monolithic slab. In the paper parameters of two models are estimated. The first is a model of a contact layer and the second is a model of a composite slab with a single degree of freedom. The models consider that the contact has elastic properties and inelastic properties causing energy dissipation. Experimental investigations are discussed further based on which the parameters values of the contact layer model were determined. Delamination was experienced for the slabs characterised by low contact layer stiffness after applying a maximum load. In addition, the strains of a contact layer having low stiffness are accompanied by lower energy dissipation than of a layer with high stiffness. The smaller stiffness of composite floors, as compared to monolithic floors, occurs as a consequence of the existence of a joint. Such decrease for a composite slab is interpreted in the model with a single degree of freedom as the serial connection of stiffness of a monolithic slab and an element considering the existence of a contact layer. The stiffness of an element considering the existence of a contact layer decreases along with a load, and the elements corresponding to the higher stiffness of the contact layer are characterised by higher energy dissipation. The aforementioned results of the investigations confirm the assumptions of the contact layer model and a composite slab model with a single degree of freedom. The findings made represent a basis for establishing a method of evaluating the condition of a joint in composite slabs according to statistical investigations.
A continuous contact layer exists between the top and bottom layer of concrete composite reinforced floors. The contact layer is characterised by linear elasticity and frictional properties. In this paper a model of single degree of freedom of composite floor is determined. The model assumes that the restoring forces and the non-conservative internal friction forces dissipating energy are produced within the contact layer. A hysteresis loop is created in the process of static loading and unloading of the model, with the energy absorption coefficient being defined on this basis. The value of the coefficient is rising along with the growing stiffness of the composite. A critical damping ratio is a parameter describing free decaying vibration caused by non-conservative internal friction forces in the contact layer and in the bottom and top layer. The value of the ratio in the defined model is rising along with the lowering stiffness of the element representing contact layer. The findings resulting from the theoretical analyses carried out, including the experimental tests, are the basis for the established methods of determining the concrete layer state for reinforced concrete floors. The method is based on energy dissipation in the contact layer.