This paper presents an experimental analysis of flexural capacity and deformability of structural concrete slabs prepared as composite members consisting of two concrete layers made of reinforced ordinary concrete (N) and fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). The reinforced concrete composite slabs used in the tests were prepared in the dimensions of 600 x 1200 x 80 mm. The basis was composed of two layers consisting of SFRC, one as the top layer, and one as ordinary concrete. The results of the analysis confirm a significant improvement of structural properties of the composite slab in comparison to the slabs prepared wholly of ordinary concrete.
An automated method for crack identification and quantitative description of crack systems in concrete was developed in order to aid a service life assessment of concrete elements in structures. Flat polished specimens for crack analysis were impregnated with epoxy resin containing fluorescent dye. The examination of the crack system was performed in ultraviolet light using a stereomicroscope and an Image Pro Plus image analysis system on specimens cored out of several concrete structures. The laboratory tests were performed on cast specimens to establish correlations between water penetration and chloride diffusion and crack system parameters. The analysis of cracks in concrete cores taken from structures resulted in interesting conclusions based on the crack width distribution and crack localization with respect to steel reinforcement. The method was found very effective to support standard concrete diagnostics methods.
Ladle plays an important role in the metallurgical industry whose maintenance directly affects the production efficiency of enterprises. In view of the problems such as low maintenance efficiency and untimely maintenance in the current ladle passive maintenance scheme, the life prediction mechanism for ladle composite structures is established which bases on the stress analysis of steel shell and ladle lining in the production process, combining conventional fatigue analysis and extended fracture theory. The mechanism is accurate and effective according to the simulation results. Through which, the useful life of steel shell can be accurately predicted by detecting the crack length of it. Due to the large number of factors affecting the life of the lining of the ladle, it is difficult to accurately predict the life of the ladle lining, so a forecasting mean based on the thermal shock method is proposed to predict the service life of the ladle lining in this paper. The life prediction mechanism can provide data support and theoretical guidance for the active maintenance of the ladle, which is the prerequisite for scientifically formulating ladle initiative maintenance program.
The study presents the results of laboratory testing of the phenomenon of cracking in the process of cross rolling. A new method of determining the critical value of the damage function was developed, in which a disc-shaped sample is subjected to rotational compression in a channel. In this method the Mannesmann effect was used. The laboratory tests were conducted for C45, 50HS and R260 grade steel in the temperature range 950°C-1150°C. In order to research various methods of simulating the phenomenon of cracking in the process of cross rolling, physical modelling was also employed. The model material was commercial plasticine, cooled to the temperature 0°C-20°C. Comparing the test results for both the real and model material allowed one to determine the range of the forming temperature for the model material, in which the cracking process is similar to the case of the real material.
In the paper, verification of welding process parameters of overlap joints of aluminium alloys EN AW-6082 and EN AW-7075, determined on the grounds of a numerical FEM model and a mathematical model, is presented. A model was prepared in order to determine the range of process parameters, for that the risk of hot crack occurrence during welding the material with limited weldability (EN AW-7075) would be minimum and the joints will meet the quality criteria. Results of metallographic and mechanical examinations of overlap welded joints are presented. Indicated are different destruction mechanisms of overlap and butt joints, as well as significant differences in their tensile strength: 110 to 135 MPa for overlap joints and 258 MPa on average for butt joints.
The paper presents the results of research on the microstructure of GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3 cast steels with a varying carbon content. The cause for undertaking the research were technological problems with hot cracking in bulk castings of duplex cast steel with a carbon content of approx. 0.06% and with 23% Cr, 8.5% Ni, 3% Mo and 2.4% Cu. The research has shown a significant effect of increased carbon content on the ferrite and austenite microstructure morphology, while exceeding the carbon content of 0.06% results in a change of the shape of primary grains from equiaxial to columnar.
Inconel 713C precision castings are used as aircraft engine components exposed to high temperatures and the aggressive exhaust gas environment. Industrial experience has shown that precision-cast components of such complexity contain casting defects like microshrinkage, porosity, and cracks. This necessitates the development of repair technologies for castings of this type. This paper presents the results of metallographic examinations of melted areas and clad welds on the Inconel 713C nickel-based superalloy, made by TIG, plasma arc, and laser. The cladding process was carried out on model test plates in order to determine the technological and materialrelated problems connected with the weldability of Inconel 713C. The studies included analyses of the macro- and microstructure of the clad welds, the base materials, and the heat-affected zones. The results of the structural analyses of the clad welds indicate that Inconel 713C should be classified as a low-weldability material. In the clad welds made by laser, cracks were identified mainly in the heat-affected zone and at the melted zone interface, crystals were formed on partially-melted grains. Cracks of this type were not identified in the clad welds made using the plasma-arc method. It has been concluded that due to the possibility of manual cladding and the absence of welding imperfections, the technology having the greatest potential for application is plasma-arc cladding.
In this paper, the different mechanical behaviors of layered rocks with different bedding angles during uniaxial compression tests are studied. Numerical simulation models of layered rock are validated based on laboratory tests, and uniaxial compression tests are conducted by using Particle Flow Code (PFC). Using these simulations, the uniaxial compressive strength, failure patterns, development of micro-cracks, and displacement of meso particles are analyzed. When the bedding angle is similar to the failure angle, the macro failure planes develop directly along the beddings, the bedding behavior dictates the behavior of the layered rock, reducing the compressive strength.