Proper names are a relatively stable part of the cultural landscape and cultural traditions that were shaped for decades and centuries. They reflect cultural and social development, the development of spiritual culture, ethnic conditions and relations, language and dialects. This study addresses proper names as psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic elements whose formation and behavior are connected to the onymic space as well as its users. The author presents some circumstances affecting the common cultural values of proper names from the developmental aspect. The cultural and historical value of proper names is evaluated in relation to the objects motivating the names, and their significance to the name-givers. The language competencies of the society, and the modus operandi of proper names are also taken into account in the evaluation. Such values are reflected even in the current use of proper names and the relations of the community to them. The proper name represents the human connection to the place where an individual lives, it is an expression of this relationship and thus presents a peculiar anthropological phenomenon. It is important from the bottom-up perspective of users of the proper name within a regional onymic system. This study addresses the types of changes in oykonyms influenced by political and social changes and their impact on the social value of a proper name, its functions, motivational and communication potential of unofficial historical names. The author understands the proper name as part of tradition, culture and universal human heritage.
The author analyses onymic practices of Poznań–based craftsmen forming guilds. In the names of the inhabitants of Poznań, which stabilised until the end of the 18th century, she seeks traces of the so-called cognomens, i.e. secondary personal designations granted to apprentices who were becoming masters. The names resulted from community acts of creation, which were of ludic nature. Referring to German onymic practices and pointing to the so-called Schleifnamen, the author discusses specific codes of European middle-class culture. She focuses on the transfer of models and patterns to Polish urban communities.
Wine is a crucial part of the cultural history of the territory within the current borders of Bulgaria from the earliest times until now. It plays an important role in the life of Bulgarians and is a multiethnic heritage of this land. Bulgarian toponyms only archive a lexicon associated with wine in a small degree, with more toponyms found regarding vines and vineyards which were characteristic elements of the native landscape. The Bulgarian enonyms constitute a “multilingual patchwork”, where the locality (present, but not dominant) is mixed with globality. Locality is mainly reflected in the detoponymic and deanthroponymic names referring to the Bulgarian heritage and also the Thracian, Greek and Roman legacy of those lands. Globality is revealed in the linguistic “hybridity” manifested by the free use of foreign models, naming vocabulary and intertextuality appealing to a global experience. This part of Bulgarian enonymy derives mainly from the English and French language, as well as Spanish, Italian, Greek and Latin.