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Abstract

Results of laboratory scale research have been presented on the effects of an oxidizing reactor on ozone consumption and by-producs composition and separation of simultaneous NOx and SO2 removal from a carrier gas by ozonation method and absorption in an alkaline solution. The additional Dreschel washer added before two washers containing 100 ml of 0.1 molar NaOH solution played the role of an oxidation reactor. Its effect was investigated using an empty (dry or wetted) or filled with packing elements washer. The measured by-products in a scrubber and in the oxidizing reactor were SO32-, SO42-, NO2- and NO3- ions, respectively. It has been shown that use of oxidizing reactor improves NOx removal efficiency reducing ozone consumption. Wetting of the oxidation reactor with water enables a preliminary separation of sulphur and nitrogen species between the oxidizing reactor and an alkaline absorber. Application of packing elements in the oxidizing reactor allows to retain 90% of nitrogen compounds in it. Some results were confirmed by tests in pilot scale.
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Abstract

In this study, the dependence between volumetric exchange rate (n) in an SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) with a modified cycle and simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) efficiency during the treatment of anaerobic sludge digester supernatant was determined. In the SBR cycle alternating three aeration phases (with limited dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration up to 0.7 mg O2/L) and two mixing phases were applied. The lengths of each aeration and mixing phases were 4 and 5.5 h, respectively. Independently of n, a total removal of ammonium was achieved. However, at n = 0.1 d-1 and n = 0.3 d-1 nitrates were the main product of nitrification, while at n = 0.5 d-1, both nitrates and nitrites occurred in the effluent. Under these operational conditions, despite low COD/N (ca. 4) ratio in the influent, denitrification in activated sludge was observed. A higher denitrification efficiency at n = 0.5 d-1 (51.3%) than at n = 0.1 d-1 (7.8%) indicated that n was a crucial factor influencing SND via nitrite and nitrate in the SBR with a low oxygen concentration in aeration phases.
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Abstract

This paper presents a general overview of 2D mathematical models for both the inorganic and the organic contaminants moving in an aquifer, taking into consideration the most important processes that occur in the ground. These processes affect, to a different extent, the concentration reduction values for the contaminants moving in a groundwater. In this analysis, the following processes have been taken into consideration: reversible physical non-linear adsorption, chemical and biological reactions (as biodegradation/biological denitrification) and radioactive decay (for moving radionuclides). Based on these 2D contaminant transport models it has been possible to calculate numerically the dimensionless concentration values with and without all the chosen processes in relation to both the chosen natural site (piezometers) and the chosen contaminants.In this paper, it has also been possible to compare all the numerically calculated concentration values to the measured concentration ones (in the chosen earlier piezometers) in relation to both the new unpublished measurement series of May 1982 and the new set of parameters used in these 2D contaminant transport models (as practical verification of these models).
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