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Abstrakt

Semiotics is the study of how signs are interpreted as references, and names are an obvious type of sign. Semiotics may therefore be considered a useful approach to all types of name study — whether personal names, place names, commercial names, or literary names. As described by C. S. Peirce, an act of reference consists of a sign (e.g., a word, word part, road sign, emblem, or simply a finger) and a referent (e.g., an object, conceptual model, or analytic definition). Furthermore, all acts of reference reflect one or more of three basic types of relationships: 1) similarity, 2) one-to-one correspondence, and/or 3) arbitrary convention. If a sign is interpreted as similar to a referent, it functions iconically. If it is interpreted as a designation or as caused by the referent, it functions indexically. If it is interpreted as referring to two or more indexical referents, it evokes related qualities and thereby functions symbolically. The primary interpretation of names is indexical. However, the purpose of this paper is to show how names, as signs, are also interpreted iconically and symbolically, even at the same time. Different types of names will be used to illustrate these semiotic functions.
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Abstrakt

Współczesna podziemna eksploatacja złóż surowców mineralnych coraz częściej związana jest z pakietami oprogramowania geologiczno-górniczego, które wspierają prace projektantów od momentu poszukiwania złoża, określenia wielkości jego zasobów, jakości kopaliny, warunków geologicznych, hydrogeologicznych, tektonicznych poprzez planowanie udostępnienia i rozcięcia złoża. P lanowanie produkcji jest jedną z najważniejszych czynności wykonywanych w trakcie prowadzenia projektu górniczego, ponieważ pozwala na założenie konkretnych wyników produkcyjnych kopalni w odniesieniu do jednostki czasu, a następnie umożliwia weryfikację stopnia realizacji zamierzonego planu. Obecnie komputerowe wspomaganie projektowania znajduje zastosowanie do codziennego lub długoterminowego planowania wydobycia z uwzględnieniem ograniczeń złożowych, jakościowych, ilościowych i kosztowych. W artykule przedstawiono wybrane formy złóż rudnych. N a podstawie kilkudziesięciu otworów wiertniczych o długości do 300 m przedstawiono przykładowy fragment modelu rozcięcia złoża rudnego z zastosowaniem komputerowego wspomagania projektowania robót górniczych. Poprzez zastosowanie nowoczesnego programu komputerowego – ABB MineScape o budowie modułowej określono możliwości usprawnienia procesu zagospodarowania przyszłych rejonów eksploatacji. W szczególności przedstawiono rozmieszczenie otworów wiertniczych, na podstawie których wykonano przekroje z przedstawieniem przykładowych miąższości warstw litostratygraficznych, uwzględniając również deformacje nieciągłe w formie uskoków oraz strefy okruszcowane. D la modelu blokowego zostały obliczone zasoby z priorytetem dla metalu nr 1 oraz 2. W ostatniej części artykułu zaproponowano sposób rozcięcia płytko zalegającego złoża rudnego. Stopień wykorzystania złoża określono dla komorowo-filarowego systemu eksploatacji.
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Abstrakt

Ilość aktualnie działających szpitali w Polsce szacuje się na ponad 750 (publicznych i prywatnych). Mimo, że projektowanie, realizacja i wyposażenie szpitali jest określone szeregiem aktów prawnych, permanentne problemy finan-sowe publicznej służby zdrowia i niedoinwestowanie powoduje, że nasze szpitale odbiegają od stanu pożądanego i standardu reprezentowanego przez jednostki w krajach wysoko rozwiniętych. Wieloletnia praktyka w projektowaniu i realizacji pozwala na sformułowanie szeregu uwag o najczęściej występujących nieprawidłowościach, wpływających na zwiększenie ryzyka występowania błędów medycznych i zdarzeń niepożądanych.
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Abstrakt

The article undertakes quastion of urban design in a context of urban sprawl linking it to the German debate on suburbanisation, conducted under the slogan of Zwischenstadt – a concept created by Th. Sieverts in 1997. The Ladenburger Kolleg „Zwischenstadt” (LKZ) developed 2002-2006 the interdisciplinary research titled: „Amidst the Edge: Zwischenstadt – towards the qualification of the urbanised landscape” The spatial effects of the dispersion processes were considered to be the manifestation of the creation of a new model of the city. The traditional image of urbanism does not fit its logic. Zwischenstadt (in-beetwen-city) recognized as a phase of the urbanization process, uncoordinated by any imposed urban vision, requires a innovative urban design leitmotives. This new planning tool is necessary to obtain the parameters needed to strengthen internal socio-economic development capabilities. The concept of the efficiency of urban design covered the issue of the character of a city›s image. The morphological studies on a megalopolis structure by Frankfurt a. Main, made a creative use of the Lynch research on the image of the city. Their main goal was to understand the characteristics of the dispersion meant as an urbanized landscape and to determine its susceptibility to the process of improving spatial quality – recognition of the endogenous potentials of generating a Zwischenstadt image.
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Abstrakt

This article presents a case study of a large wedge failure. It took place during excavation of the last bench of storage cavern with an approximate dimension of 80 m long having a depth of 8 m. The adopted intervention followed a structured approach, which included immediate rock support, geotechnical and geological investigations in the failure zone and design modifications. Back analyses of the failure zone were also carried out to assess design parameters with observed geological conditions. Re assessment in the failure zone was carried out using modified design parameters, which included shorter benches, rock support installation schemes such as longer rock bolts, reinforced ribs of shotcrete and reduced construction advances. Geotechnical monitoring in and around failure zone were carried out for recording any alarming movements in the rock mass. Initially, geotechnical monitoring was carried out in the recently excavated zone of the cavern on a daily basis. Based on continuous monitoring data for at least one week, the frequency of subsequent monitoring can be decided. In most cases the deformation of rock mass was considerably less than the alarming values which were calculated based on detailed design for different rock classes. The paper discusses the failure, investigation, cause, assessment and remedial measures to complete the construction of cavern.
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Abstrakt

Tematyka niniejszego artykułu dotyczy badań nad specyfiką przeobrażeń współczesnej przestrzeni publicznej miast cywilizacji zachodniej oraz zagadnieniem jej wielopostaciowości. W opisie złożonych przemian przestrzeni miejskich Autorka sięga do zapożyczonych z pola nauk przyrodniczych pojęć „hybrydy” i „hybrydyzacji” szeroko wyjaśniając przy tym zasadność ich wykorzystania we wspomnianym obszarze badawczym.
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Abstrakt

Kościół pod wezwaniem Ducha Świętego, zbudowany we Wrocławiu w osiedlu Huby, tworzony był w okresie PRL, co znacznie utrudniało prace projektowe a następnie realizacyjne. Równocześnie był to okres schyłku reżymu komunistycznego, który już musiał się wówczas liczyć z koniecznością pewnej tolerancji religijnej, wymuszonej okolicznościami politycznymi obejmującej też wznoszenie budowli sakralnych. Autor owego kościoła i zarazem autor niniejszego artykułu – wielce aktywny opozycjonista polityczny - był więc zmuszony do jednoczesnego wysiłku i emocji związanych z projektowaniem, przy tym równocześnie był z konieczności wpleciony w zagadnienia formalne i organizacyjne, a w rzeczywistości do stawiania czoła wciąż opierającemu się architekturze sakralnej reżymowi. Autor stara się przybliżyć Czytelnikowi przeżycia związane z tworzeniem tego dzieła. Ostatecznie kościół został pomyślnie zrealizowany i stał się obiektem znanym oraz uznanym.
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Abstrakt

City is a formal expression of social relations. It is a kind of ethos and dreams connected with history and identity of individuals. It is a structure with thousands of meanings. The opportunities it creates can lead to an outstanding civilization. At the same time it reveals all negative aspects of living. City is a collection of separate individuals combined with common perception of spatial affi liation and identity development. It is worth writing about city because despite its well-defi ned value it is an elusive being. In spite of being a kind of collective needs it is still on the move, transforms all the time reflecting human emotions. Existence of city as a phenomena itself is a symbol of realization of people’s most basic needs and the history of its development shows growing complication and diversification of expectations related to it. City along with is diversity reflects human beings of a particular time. It is a spotlight in which both successes and failures of communities and individuals in each epoch can be seen. Thanks to its interdisciplinary character it can be perceived as multidimensional place. It is a multifaceted organism with high hopes and unlimited opportunities. Differences in perception which are due to a number of its users results in a wide range of problems and expectations. Expectations of local communities and individuals of a whole city vary. As a result, what we call a city landscape must be very vague and differs depending on a particular field which is taken into consideration. The number of opportunities and city-related issues is infi nite. In the dissertation below, however, three factors are the crucial ones: structure, meaning and city phenomena as a landscape. Thanks to the interpretation of model and genius loci as well as defining social expectations we have managed to conceive the phenomena of spatial identity. We have decided on this method referring directly to the concept of landscape. City is in here widely defined between urban aspects of landscape and city landscape. We have tried to understand what city is in terms of landscape, where it comes from and where it goes to. It is a trial of translation the Gaugin’s method: where are we from? Who are we? Where are we going to? into the language of present perception of some particular aspects of town planning. We live at times of the unprecedented technological change which is followed by a social change. It all must have an impact on how city is perceived, what it looks like, how it is to live there and what it is going to be like – what the future has in store. We have tried to bring the reader’s attention to the problems and issues which had appeared before the advent of reality we live in. We have focused on what may have led to a kind of city crisis at the edge of 19th and 20th centuries and some radical solutions trying to overcome the arisen problems and its consequences today. Both its pompous character and sentimentalism of town planning and architecture in the early 20th century have made us be bored with form which is felt in many parts of the world even today. Another aspect of our work covers understanding city in social terms as well as contemporary and future solutions. We are of the opinion it is worth asking questions referring to the future and at the same time regarding its current state and recent past. It is commendable to look for particular tools and solutions. Three dimensions which are covered by the book are figurative. Structure – which is everything we perceive as a kind of a template, identifi cation – we assign to city. It is responsible for recognition, adaptation to some forms by which we defi ne space. Meaning is a step forward. While the structure’s equivalent is „I can see”, the meaning equals to „I know”. Meaning does not exist as a city without structure just like structure does not exist without meaning. Things don’t just exist, they have some characteristics and purpose and it refers to trees, buildings and all other urban elements constituting city in all steady and temporary aspects and time dimensions. Meaning is also interpretation and emotion regarding both community and individual. It is the answer to the question „why?” Some particular places and spaces are linked to some particular values which identify them. This system of values is a must to be able to interpret what space we are dealing with and its diagnosis. Meaning is very much about social aspect too. It has to do with perception and remembering city and it is connected with knowledge, tradition and culture of places. Another aspect linked to relations in city landscape combines other aspects and constitutes something to which city refers to. Phenomena is contribution and verifi cation. The way city works is fundamental to all city residents and users. A key to such understanding a city is the term of genius loci. By singling out objects, order, time, character and light we are able to widely identify essence of space and particular places. The graphic model by Panofsky acts here as a verifying tool. City landscape as a form is of great importance here. The sense of beauty is as essential as the way the city works. Social perception of city is not only shaped by the way it is used, but also by the fact what city is like and how it is perceived. Spatial order is an incredibly important factor understood here as everything what accommodates vaguely defi ned beauty and what is connected with its particular structure, history and identity. All these factors contribute to the value of city landscape. When it comes to city landscape studies social aspect is emphasized by the impact of humanities, especially sociology, which perfectly shows expectations related to space. Cities are built and seen in the context of particular tradition, culture and history. Their skyline and ways of functioning are embedded in mentalities of societies which they represent. Despite their diversity from the global point of view they are susceptible to similar trends resulting in crisis or prosperity periods. They are economic archetypes of success.
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Abstrakt

This article reflects on the results the use and eff ectiveness of design coding as urban design / development tool, focusing on the roles of and the relationships between the different actors playing parts in the in the design coding process: the administration, the investors, the designers, the politics and the community. It reveals the gap in professional circles that impacts the development process, which, deepened by the continuous battle between the creative, the market-driven and the regulatory modes praxis. The article is polemical in that it points to the three main parties of this collective process, referring to is as the creative, market and regulatory tyranny. The author proposes that design coding, if used correctly, could be an effective tool regulating the essentials of urbanism, leaving room for creativity and enhanced market value. Design coding as such results in improvement of the quality of both urbans space and housing architecture.
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Abstrakt

The article describes the design principles, the course of work on the project and the implementation of the Nowe Żerniki district, in the context of the theory of sustainable housing complexes. By comparing the settlement to the Aspern Seestadt, which is considered to be the leading European example of new district development, the author tries to find out, if Nowe Żerniki meets the latest European urban standards and can be called innovative on a European scale. Not only the final shape of the settlement was assessed, but also the design process and functional assumptions of the estate.
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