The LQR (linear quadratic regulator) control problem subject to singular system constitutes a optimization problem in which one must be find an optimal control that satisfy the singular system and simultaneously to optimize the quadratic objective functional. In this paper we establish a sufficient condition to obtain the optimal control of discounted LQR optimization problem subject to disturbanced singular system where the disturbance is time varying. The considered problem is solved by transforming the discounted LQR control problem subject to disturbanced singular system into the normal LQR control problem. Some available results in literatures of the normal LQR control problem be used to find the sufficient conditions for the existence of the optimal control for discounted LQR control problem subject to disturbanced singular system. The final result of this paper is in the form a method to find the optimal control of discounted LQR optimization problem subject to disturbanced singular system. The result shows that the disturbance is vanish with the passage of time.
This paper presents a robust control technique for small-scale unmanned helicopters to track predefined trajectories (velocities and heading) in the presence of bounded external disturbances. The controller design is based on the linearized state-space model of the helicopter. The multivariable dynamics of the helicopter is divided into two subsystems, longitudinallateral and heading-heave dynamics respectively. There is no strong coupling between these two subsystems and independent controllers are designed for each subsystem. The external disturbances and model mismatch in the longitudinal-lateral subsystem are present in all (matched and mismatched) channels. This model mismatch and external disturbances are estimated as lumped disturbances using extended disturbance observer and an extended disturbance observer based sliding mode controller is designed for it to counter the effect of these disturbances. In the case of heading-heave subsystem, external disturbances and model mismatch only occur in matched channels so a second order sliding mode controller is designed for it as it is insensitive to matched uncertainties. The control performance is successfully tested in Simulink.
The discourse on homosexually has largely remained Euro-American with a focus on human right of African homosexuals residing in Africa. However, current debates in Africa have centered on the cultural acceptability, legality as well as mental health concerns presumed to be associated with homosexuality. The paper approaches the issue of homosexuality from a perspective that is sensitive to the cultural context of Ghana and also through a non-Euro-American lens. The author attempts to address some of the misunderstanding about the legal status of homosexuals and the negative attitudes in Ghana. The paper concludes that Ghanaians face a paradox of accepting homosexuality because it cannot be understood to further growth of human society from their perspective. Similarly, if Ghanaians view homosexuality as a mental health issue, then it is more appropriate to decriminalize it as it is not appropriate to criminalize mental disorders. Reconceptualizing the issue as a human rights one in which both anti- and pro-homosexual religious and sexual rights respectively are accommodated may be more progressive than promoting one set of rights at the expense of the other. Though Ghana is the focus of this paper, it is believed that the discussions presented are applicable to the rest of Africa and other non-Western societies.
The wavelet transform has been successfully used in the area of power quality analysis. There are many published papers with methods for power quality disturbance classification or harmonics measurement, which use wavelet transform. However, the properties of the wavelet transform can drastically vary from the choice of the wavelet. In this paper we analyze the influence of the choice of the wavelet to the accuracy of the power quality classification method and to high frequency harmonics measurements. Additionally to the well known wavelet filters we introduce near perfect reconstruction filter banks. The simulation results indicate that these filter banks are a good choice for classification of power quality disturbances, especially in the presence of noise and for high frequency harmonics measurements
The method of a phase shift angle measurement using conditional averaging of delayed signal absolute value (CAAV) is presented in this paper. The input sinusoidal signal x(t) is without noise. White noise with normal distribution and band limited to low frequencies has been applied as disturbance of delayed sinusoidal signal z(t). Noise n(t) - N(0, σn) is added to the delayed signal - the noised and delayed signal z(t) is obtained. The phase angle shift is proportional to time location of CAAV's minimum (minimum of the characteristic of conditional averaging of delayed signal's absolute value). The phase angle shift can be determined on the basis of conditional averaging value of elaborated algorithm. The characteristics of conditional average of delayed signal's absolute value in the surrounding of the minimum of this function (the results of practical investigations and theoretical calculation) are presented. The experimental variance of characteristic CAAV in surroundings of the minimum (obtained from practical investigations and calculation) is illustrated in the paper. The algorithms of conditional averaging have been elaborated and practically realized in the LabVIEW environment.
Automation of earth moving machineries is a widely studied problem. This paper focusses on one of the main challenges in automation of the earth moving industry, estimation of loading torque acting on the machinery. Loading torque acting on the excavation machinery is a very significant aspect in terms of both machine and operator safety. In this study, a disturbance observer-assisted control system for the estimation of loading torque acting on a robotic backhoe during excavation process is presented. The proposed observer does not use any acceleration measurements, rather, is proposed as a function of joint velocity. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme in tracking the reaction torques for a given dig cycle. Co-simulation experiments demonstrate robust performance and accurate tracking of the proposed control in both disturbance torque and position tracking. Further, the performance and sensitivity of the proposed control are also analyzed through the help of performance error quantifiers, the root-mean-square (RMS) values of the position and disturbance tracking errors.
In this paper, the PLC-based (Programmable Logic Controller) industrial implementation in the form of the general-purpose function block for ADRC (Active Disturbance Rejection Controller) is presented. The details of practical aspects are discussed because their reliable implementation is not trivial for higher order ADRC. Additional important novelties discussed in the paper are the impact of the derivative backoff and the method that significantly simplifies tuning of higher order ADRC by avoiding the usual trial and error procedure. The results of the practical validation of the suggested concepts complete the paper and show the potential industrial applicability of ADRC.