The suspension of copper droplets in the slag is considered. The copper/slug suspension is delivered as the product from the direct-toblister process which is applied in the KGHM – Polska Miedź (Polish Copper) S.A. factory. The droplets / slag suspension was treated by a special set of reagents (patented by the authors) to improve the coagulation process. On the other hand, the observations are made to estimate if the melting / reduction process in the furnace is sufficiently effective to avoid a remaining of carbon in the copper droplets. The coagulation process was carried out in the crucible (laboratory scale). However, conditions imposed to the coagulation / solidification process in the laboratory scale were to some extent similar to those applied usually in the industry when the suspension is subjected to the analogous treatment in the electric arc-furnace. Some suggestions are formulated how to improve the industrial direct-to-blister process.
The work presents investigation on the water droplet impingement at a substrate with three different surface coating. The experiments are carried out for two temperatures of the surface: 23ºC (room temperature) and -10ºC. The water droplet contact is recorded via ultra-fast camera and simultaneously via fast thermographic camera. The wetting properties are changing for subzero temperatures of substrates.
The suspension of the copper droplets in the post-processing slag taken directly from the KGHM-Polska Miedź S.A. Factory (from the direct-to-blister technology as performed in the flash furnace) was subjected to the special treatment with the use of the one of the typical industrial reagent and with the complex reagent newly patented by the authors. This treatment was performed in the BOLMET S.A. Company in the semi-industrial conditions. The result of the CaCO3, and Na2CO3 chemicals influence on the coagulation and subsequent sedimentation of copper droplets on the crucible bottom were subjected to comparison with the sedimentation forced by the mentioned complex reagent. The industrial chemicals promoted the agglomeration of copper droplets but the coagulation was arrested / blocked by the formation of the lead envelope. Therefore, buoyancy force forced the motion of the partially coagulated copper droplets towards the liquid slag surface rather than sedimentation on the crucible bottom. On the other hand, the complex reagent was able to influence the mechanical equilibrium between copper droplets and some particles of the liquid slag as well as improve the slag viscosity. Finally, the copper droplets coagulated successfully and generally, were subjected to a settlement on the crucible bottom as desired / requested.
This mini-review reports the recent advances in the hydrodynamic techniques for formation of bubbles of gas in liquid in microfluidic systems. Systems comprising ducts that have widths of the order of 100 micrometers produce suspensions of bubbles with narrow size distributions. Certain of these systems have the ability to tune the volume fraction of the gaseous phase over the whole range from zero to one. The rate of flow of the liquids through the devices determines the mechanism of formation of the bubbles from break-up controlled by the rate of flow of the liquid (at low capillary numbers, and in the presence of strong confinement by the walls of the microchannels), to dynamics dominated by inertial effects (at high Weber numbers). The region of transition between these two regimes exhibits nonlinear behaviours, with period doubling cascades and irregular bubbling as prominent examples. Microfluidic systems provide new and uniquely controlled methods for generation of bubbles, and offer potential applications in micro-flow chemical processing, synthesis of materials, and fluidic optics.
Three methods of estimating radii of spray droplets are discussed and results of their practical application in the case of explosively produced water spray are reported. Parameters of model radii distributions are fitted using the least squares method. Finally, the data obtained for a number of tests are used for estimating fraction of explosion energy used for pulverization of water in the process of explosive production of water-spray.
Coagulation and solidification of the copper droplets suspend in the liquid slag are usually accompanied by the appearance of the Cu-Cu2O eutectic. Locally, this eutectic is created in the stationary state. Therefore, frequently it has a directional morphology. Since the E = (Zn) + Zn16Ti – eutectic is similar in the asymmetry of the phase diagram to the Cu-Cu2O – eutectic, the (Zn) single crystal strengthened by the E = (Zn) + Zn16Ti precipitate is subjected to directional growth by the Bridgman’s system and current analysis. Experimentally, the strengthening layers (stripes) are generated periodically in the (Zn) – single crystal as a result of the cyclical course of precipitation which accompanies the directional solidification. These layers evince diversified eutectic morphologies like irregular rods, regular lamellae, and regular rods. The L – shape rods of the Zn16Ti – intermetallic compound appear within the first range of the growth rates when the irregular eutectic structure is formed. Next, the branched rods transform into regular rods and subsequently the regular rods into regular lamellae transitions can be recorded. The regular lamellae exist only within a certain range of growth rates. Finally, the regular rods re-appear at some elevated growth rates. The entropy production per unit time and unit volume is calculated for the regular eutectic growth. It will allow to formulate the entropy production per unit time for both eutectic structure: rod-like and lamellar one.
The copper droplets contained in the post-processing liquid slag are subjected to the treatment by the complex reagent. The complex reagent has been recently elaborated and patented in frame of the Grant No. PBS3/A5/45/2015. In particular, the complex reagent is dedicated to the post-processing slags coming from the Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów, as a product of the direct-to-blister technology performed in the flash furnace. The recently patented complex reagent effectively assists not only in agglomeration, and coagulation but also in the deposition of the copper droplets at the bottom of crucible / furnace as well. The treatment of the postprocessing slags by the complex reagent was performed in the BOLMET S.A. Company as in the industrial conditions which were similar to those usually applied in the KGHM – Polish Copper (Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów). The competition between buoyancy force and gravity is studied from the viewpoint of the required deposition of coagulated copper droplets. The applied complex reagent improves sufficiently the surface free energy of the copper droplets. In the result, the mechanical equilibrium between coagulated copper droplets and surrounding liquid slag is properly modified. Finally, sufficiently large copper droplets are subjected to a settlement on the crucible / furnace bottom according to the requirements.